Volume 35, Issue 114, Autumn 2013, Page 9-192


Diagnosis Of Obstacles Of The Application Electronic Management Models In Educational Institutions :Exploratory Study Of The Views Of Staff In ANumber Of Private Schools In The City Of Mosul

Mohammed M.Al . Qasimi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 9-29
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162042

The purpose of this study is to diagnose the obstacles of the application electronic management models in the educational field, particularly in private schools in the city of Mosul. The field visits found out to the researchers of some schools about the existence of obstacles of the application of the electronic management the research problem can be formulated through the following research question: What is the nature of the obstacles facing the application of e-management models in private schools in the city of Mosul?
To answer on this question the descriptive and analytical methods were adopted ,the researchers used the questionnaires to get the information and data .the anylisses of data achieved by using set of means and statical methods (40) forms were distributed on the staff of a group of the private schools in the city of Mosul ,the study concludes asset if conclutios,reached by the study.هددفت هدذا الدراسدة إلد تشدخیص معوقدات تطبیدق نمدإذج الإدارة الالکترونیدة فدی المجدال
التربوی وخاصة فی المدارس الاهلیة فدی مدیندة الموصدل. إذ کشدفت الییدارات المیدانیدة للبداحثین
لبعض المدارس عن وجود معوقات لتطبیدق الإدارة الالکترونیدة فیادا، وإذ یمکدن صدیا ة المشدکلة
البحثیة من خلال التساؤل البحثی الآتی: ما هی طبیعة المعوقات التی تواجه تطبیق نمدإذج الإدارة
الالکترونیة فی المدارس الاهلیة فی مدینة الموصل؟
وللإجابددة عددن التسدداؤل معددلاا تدد اعتمدداد المددناو الوصددفی، فضددلا ا عددن المددناو التحلیلددی،
واستخدمت الدراسة الإستبانه مداة لجمع المعلومات والبیاندات، وقدد تد تحلیدل البیاندات باسدتخدا
مجموعة من الوسائل والأسدالی الإحصدائیة، إذ تد توییدع 01 ( اسدتمارة علد الکدادر الدوظیفی
لعدد من المدارس الاهلیة فی مدینة الموصل،. وتوصلت الدراسة إل مجموعدة مدن الاسدتنتاجات
التی تخد تقدی مجموعة من المقترحات التی تساعد فی تذلیل هذا المعوقدات بشدکل یدتلاء مدع
الاستنتاجات التی توصلت الیاا الدراسة.

Measuring The Impact of Financial Development on Economic Growth in A Sample of Developing Countries Using The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model For The Period (1960-2010)

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 31-47
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162043

The theoretical and Practical controversy between the financial development and economic growth still exists and as this relationship varies among countries and regions. Thus, it is necessary to be diagnosed in detail in order to provide the basic requirements for resources planning and management in macro economic .
This study aims at finding out the impact of financial development on the economic growth rate in a group of Asian countries with similar income levels classified by the World Bank through using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to analyze the Co-integration developed by (Pesaran et al.,2001) and then to test the long and short-term relationship by using the Unrestricted Error Correction Model (UECM) and (F) statistics for boundaries among the financial development indicator, real economy, financial markets and economic growth for the Period (1960-2010).
The Co-integration test indicats that there is a significant positive relationship between the financial development , represented by the local credit factor granted to the private sector, and the economic growth. In the short term this relationship, however, turned into a negative one and this direction supports by the causal relationship, this result agrees with the financial development hypothesis as a leader for the economic growth.لا زال الجدل النظری والتطبیقی مستمر ا بین التطور المالی والنموو الاقتصوادی، إذ إن هوذ
العلاقة تختلف بین الدول والأقالیم ولهوذا مون الووروری تصخیصوها بصوصل مفصول مون أجول تقودیم
المتطلبات الأساسیة للتخطیط وإدارة الموارد فی الاقتصاد الصلی.
تهدف هذ الدراسة إلى معرفة تأثیر التطور المالی على معدل النموو الاقتصوادی لمجموعوة
موون الوودول ایسوویویة ذات مسووتویات الوودخل المتصووابهة المصوونفة بحسوود البنووت الوودولی باسووتخدام
منهجیة الانحدار الذاتی ذی التباطؤ الموزع ) ARDL ( لتحلیل التصامل المصوترت المطوورة مون قبول
بیسواران وخخورین ) (Pesaran et al., 2001 ، ثوم اختبوار العلاقوة طویلوة وقصویرة الأجول باسوتعمال
طریقوة تصوحیا الخطوأ العصوووا ی میور المقیودة (UECM) وإحصووا یة ) (F للحودود بووین مؤصوورات
- .) التطور المالی والاقتصواد الحقیقوی والأسووال المالیوة والنموو الاقتصوادی للمودة ) 0101 0691
وقود دل اختبوار التصامول المصوترت علووى وجوود علاقوة معنویوة موجبووة بوین التطوور الموالی متمووثلا
بمعامل الا تمان المحلی الممنوح للقطاع الخاص والنمو الاقتصادی، ولصن هذ العلاقة تحولت إلى
سالبة فی المدى القصیر، وقد أیدت العلاقة السببیة هوذا الاتجوا ، وهوذ النتیجوة تتفول موة فروویة
التطور المالی صقا د للنمو الاقتصادی.

The Role of Using Search Engines In Achieving The Individual Innovation A Survey Study For The Opinions Of A Sample Of Postgraduate Students In The College Of Administration And Economics - Mosul University

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 48-68
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162044

The study tackled the role of the use of search engines to achieve the individual innovation. The study has presents a theoretical framework of the study variables, as well as the operational framework, which includes the analysis of the views of a selected sample represented by postgraduate students in the college Administration and Economics.
A set of research questions that formed the problem of the study and among them : "Is there a relationship and influence between the search engines and individual innovation?"
A test of the correlation and the effect between the independent variable "search engines" that presented by independent variables and the dependent variable "individual innovation". The study concludes to several conclusions:
• The relatively rise in the answers of the students about the use of search engines to find new topics regards as one of the aspects more relevant to individual innovation and this emphasizes seeking to present the innovative and distinctive.
The study concludes many conclusions presenting some suggestions including: (the necessity of using the specialized search engines by the students when they need to recover the subjects which have a high degree of specialization so that they are not available in general search engines except about the limited side.سعت الدراسة للتعرف على دور استخدام محرکات البحث فی تحقیق الإبددا لدد البداحیی،
وقدددمت الدراسددة إطدداران ریریددان لمددا قدمدد البدداحیو، لمتغیددرا الدراسددة فعددان عدد، الإطددار العملددی
والمتعم، تحلیا ن لآراء عیرة مختارة عم، مجتمع الدراسة والمتمیلة ب 53 طالب ان وطالبة م، طلبدة
الدراسات العلیا فی کلیة الإدارة والاقتصاد. وقدد لجدتت الدراسدة لمعالجدة مةدکلة عددم وعدو دور
محرکات البحث فی إرجاز بحوث علمیة تتسم بالإبدا .
ولغرض تحقیق ذلک فقد تم استخدام الاستبارة بوصفها الأداة البحییدة الرئیسدة لجمدع البیاردات.
ولقد سعت الدراسة للإجابة ع، مجموعدة التسدالالات کدا، مد، ربرز دا التسدالال الآتدی " دل توجدد
عاقة ارتباط وتتییر بی، محرکات البحث والإبدا الفردا" وقد تم اختبار عاقة الارتباط والتدتییر
بی، المتغیر المستقل )محرکات البحث( والمتغیدر المعتمدد )الإبددا الفدردا( وقدد تدم التوصدل مد،
خال ذه الدراسة إلى عدة استرتاجات لعل م، ر مها
 إ، الارتفددا الرسددبی فددی إجابددات الطلبددة عیرددة الدراسددة بخصددوا اسددتخدام محرکددات البحددث
لإیجاد موعوعات جدیددة تعدد مد، رکیدر الجوارد صدلة لتحقیدق الإبددا الفدردا و دذا مایلاکدد
سعیهم لتقدیم بحوث علمیة مبتکرة ومتمیزة.
ولقد دفعت جملدة الاسدترتاجات التدی تدم التوصدل إلیهدا إلدى تقددیم بعدض المقترحدات کدا، مد،
ربرز ا
 عرورة اسدتخدام الطلبدة عیردة الدراسدة محرکدات البحدث المتخصصدة عردد الحاجدة لاسدترجا
موعوعات تتسم بدرجة عالیة م، التخصا بحیث إرهدا لا تتدا فدی محرکدات البحدث العامدة
إلا على رحو محدود.

Availability Extent of Requirements for Adopting of the Customer- Experience Management in the Hostelry Sector A Case Study on Nineveh International Hotel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 69-80
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162045

The study aims at recognizing the requirements for adopting the customer-experience management represented by (developing the customer-experience strategy, setting the objectives and determining the scales, the organizational alignment, re-designing the customer-experience and improving customer-experience via adopting the technologies). So, the customer-experience consider an essential factor to determine customer's purchasing trends whether for the goods or services. The organizations attempt to construct a distinctive experiences for their customers in terms of their activities and quality of their services to achieve competitive gains in the light of an environment characterized by the high competition . The problem of the study represented by the weakness of the hotels management in managing customers' experience especially, in providing the needed requirements to succeed the operation of customers' experience enrichment .The study takes its importance from its contribution in diagnosing the needed requirements to succeed the application of customer experience management in the researched hotel in a way that supports its market share and satisfies its costumers. The researchers adopts a questionnaire in covering the field part as well as using a group of statistical means like : repetitions , percentages, arithmetic means and factor analysis. The study takes Nineveh International Hotel as a study field. The study concludes to a group of conclusions and suggestions that serve the researched field and enhance its activity in the market.یهددد البحدد إلددا التفددر ملددا متطلبددات تبنددی إدارة خبددرة الزبددون والمتم)لددة تطددویر
استراتیجیة خبرة الزبون، وضع الأهدا وتحدید المقدایی،، اصطدطفا المنیمدی، إمدادة تطدمی
خبرة الزبون، وتحسین خبرة الزبدون باصمتمداد ملدا التقاندة ، إذ تفدد خبدرة الزبدون مدامی ر یسدا
لتحدید توجهات الزبدون الردرا یة سدوا ل للسدلع او الخددمات، وتسدفا المنیمدات إلدا بندال خبدرات
متمیزة لزبا نها فیما یتفلق بطبیفة انرطتها وجودة خدماتها لتحقیق مکاسب تنافسیة فدی یدب بی دة
تتس بالتنافسیة الفالیة، وتم)لت مرکلة الدراسة بضف إدارة الفندق لخبرة زبا ند وبخاطدة فیمدا
یتفلق بتوفیر المتطلبدات الیزمدة لنجدام مملیدة ضدخ الخبدرة للزبدا ن، ویسدتمد البحد تهمیتد مدن
خددیب إسددهام فددی ترددخیص المتطلبددات الیزمددة لنجددام تطبیددق إدارة خبددرة الزبددون فددی الفندددق
المبحو ، وملا نحو یفزز من حطت السدوقیة ویرضدی زبا ند ، وامتمدد الباح)دان ملدا اسدتمارة
اصستبیان فی تغطیة الجانب المیدانی، فضی من استخدا مجمومدة مدن الوسدا ب اصحطدا یة منهدا
التکددرارات والنسددب الم ویددة والمتوسددطات الحسددابیة، وکددذلت اسددتخدا التحلیددب الفدداملی، واتخددذ
البح من فندق نینوى الدولی میدان ال بح)ی ال، وتوطب إلدا مجمومدة مدن اصسدتنتاجات والمقترحدات
التی تخد المیدان المبحو وتفزز من نراط فی السوق.

Poverty Situation In The Mixed-Income Countries Egypt And Yemen Model

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 81-97
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162046

The emergence of poverty as an economic problem, has attracted the attention of the States, and gave ideas more clearly clarify the understanding of this fact that has raised the ire of conscience and bright minds in overcoming obstacles and riding the pulpits of science to illuminate the ways to get rid of poverty and deprivation. It was the product of this care and international efforts announced the Millennium Development Goals, adopted by the Member States of the United Nations in 2000 as an international consequent number of commitments aimed at eradicating poverty and promoting the principles of dignity and human equality and achieve peace, freedom and sustainability in the environment, in the context of policies of poverty alleviation , through efforts to increase the chances of choice for members of the community in a number of areas, particularly health, education and income. Poverty is the biggest problem facing the world today, under a staggering 40% of the world population living reality of extreme poverty or are at risk of falling into it, and in a situation is the fact that one out of every five people living in poverty reach of intensity makes it threatens survival the existence of a world free from want and fear, according to the desired vision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is still a distant prospect

Poverty : The Concept and Reasons Iraq model

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 98-112
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162047

The phenomenon of poverty Keep to The economic systems since the beginning of The ancient civilizations according to The social divisions and yet. And each Period of time has concepts of poverty and there are reasons for the case of poverty as well, and these issues allow to put true indicators of poverty levels also. The study deals with in addition to the above to the issue of poverty in Iraq and according to the concepts, causes and indicators as a case study starts from the mid-seventies and yet, what the contents of these contracts uneconomical problems impacted negatively on The economic efficiency and caused grave damage to the two matters of The income distribution and redistribution of income and declining role of government in the economic expenditure with real deformations in the popular class pyramid that generated new levels of poverty cases..

The Effect of The Accounting Information In The Effectiveness of Liquidity Risks Management (A Field Study In The Industrial Bank In Syria)

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 113-134
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162048

This study aims to determine the role of accounting information in the effectiveness of liquidity risk management at the Industrial Bank of Syria. Considering the great importance of liquidity in any bank, because it represents the backbone of its activity represented mainly to accept different deposits and offering loans. Therefore, it is necessary to manage this liquidity in a balanced manner so that reduces the risks of a surplus liquidity represented by a surplus and the lack ofliquidity.
The adoption of management accounting information produced by the accounting information system helps a lot in determining the liquidity risks that might be exposed to the bank and their causes and the available solutions to management to resolve this problem, and information to be produced by the accounting system capable of serving the decision makers at the bank and especially decisions related to liquidity it is necessary to characterized with the basic properties of the information, the most important of convenience and reliability.
The society of the search consits of all the cadres exits in the Industrial Bank and its branches in Syria, which amounted 15 branches out of 17 branches. The research sample was limited to decision-makers in these branches presented by the managers and their assistants and heads of departments and offices. Thy have been selected on the basis of the scientific qualification, age and number of the years of experience and functional level. The number of questionnaires distributed are 107, while the number of questionnaires that answered and valid for analysis are 97 questionnaire
The study concludes to a significant effect of each of the relevance and reliability of accounting information in the effectiveness of liquidity risk management at the Industrial Bank of Syria. .

The Economic analysis Of The Effects Of The Pollution caused by petroleum industries on The Indices Of The Countries Of The Highly- Environmental Performance

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 135-154
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162049

The present study sheds the light on the whole negative impacts resulted from industry of petroleum and its derivatives and the certain techniques used to avoid and reduce the environmental pollution. So, many strategies should be applied to protect and preserve the environment from soil, air and water pollutions and to increase the efficiency of materials and energy productivities. These strategies concentrate on using clean techniques, recycling, as well as imposing environmental taxes on producers of pollution..

Using models (P) ARCH and (p,q) GARCH With Daily Data Application for Children Patients

dr. Saffa Al-saffawi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 155-171
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162050

The study of the time series includes stationary. The time series models may be stationary or non- stationary, so we study how to deal with the non-stationary time series. The time series be stationary if it was in a statistical equilibrium case and this means that its characteristics don't influence by time .While it be non- stationary if it doesn't include a stable mean and unstable variance.
This research includes the analysis of time series representing daily access to patients in Ibn AL-Atheer Teaching Hospital by using the linear ARIMA and non-linear model GARCH (P, q) and how to treat the unstable time series for both types, with empazising stability of the conditional variances predition for GARCH model, and showing to be near to the unconditional variance for GARH model. And choosing models to present these series including linear model ARIMA (4, 1, 3) and non- linear model GARH (1,1). by using (MSE, MAE, MAPE) criteria, of accuracy check to choose the best model from the selected models, by choosing GARCH (1, 1) as the best model.إن دراسةةة السلسةةل ال منیةةة ت ةةمل ةةدب مواضةةیق مةةن بین ةةا الاسةةت راریة، وإن نمةةاذج
السلسةةل ال منیةةة إمةةا نن تتةةون مسةةت رب نو یةةر مسةةت رب، لةةذلن نةةدرف تیفیةةة مااللةةة السلسةةلة
ال منیة یر المست رب، تی تتون السلسةلة ال منیةة مسةت رب إذا تانةت اةی مالةة موا نةة إم ةا یة
نی إن خ ا ا لا تتأثر بال من وتتون السلسلة ال منیة یر مست رب مةن الدرلةة الثانیةة إذا لةم
تتضمن وسطاً وتبایناً ثةابتین، وتتضةمن ذةذا الرسةالة تملیةل سلسةلة منیةة تمثةل الةدخول الیةومی
للمرضةةى اةةی مست ةةفى ابةةن اعثیةةر التالیمةةی باسةةتخدام نمةةاذج ARIMA(p,d,q) الخطیةةة ونمةةاذج
GARCH(p,q) اللخطیةة وتیفیةة مااللةة السلسةلة ال منیةة یةر المسةت رب لتةل اعنمةوذلین، مةق
تأتیةةد اسةةت راریة تنبةةتات التبةةاین الم ةةروط لنمةةاذج GARCH وبیةةان ارتةةراه ذةةذا التنبةةتات مةةن
التباین یر الم روط للأنموذج GARCH ، وتم اختیار نماذج لتمثیل ذذا السلسلة من ةا اعنمةوذج
الخطةةی ARIMA(4,1,3) واعنمةةوذج اللخطةةی GARCH(1,1) وباسةةةتخدام ماةةاییر ضةةبط الدرةةةة
(MSE,MAE,MAPE) لاختیار اعاضل لتمثیل البیانات تم اختیار اعنموذج GARCH(1,1) تأاضل
ننموذج .

The Usury Effects on The Human Development

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 35, Issue 114, Pages 172-192
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2013.162051

This research aims to determine the effects that can be caused to the goals of human development as a result of usury. The including on the hypothesis of the research includes that the usury effects in advacing the goals of human development.
To achieve the goal of the research and prove his hypothesis, it has divided into five parts. The first deals with the development of the concept of Human Development in the light of the Human Development Reports since 1990. The second deals with the meaning of usury in terms of language and terminology. The third part has looked at the evidences from (Quran and Sunah) that prohibit usury. The Fourth part deals with the kinds of usury. The last part deals with the usury effects in Human Development through the study of some economic variables.
The research proved the hypothesis, that there are negative effects of usury, became clean through the analysis f these variables, that it retards the advancement of the goals of human development. hinder promoting the goals of human development.یهدف البحث إلى تحدید الآثار التی یمکن أن تلحق بأهداف التنمیة البشریة من جراء الربا.
منطلقین من فرضیة فحواها إن للربا آثار ا فی النهوض بأهداف التنمیة البشریة.
ولتحقیق هدف البحث واثبات فرضیته، فقد تقسیمه على خمس فقررات، الأولرى تطرترت إلرى
تطرور مههرول التنمیرة البشرریة فری ضروء تقراریر التنمیرة البشرریة منرع عرال 0991 ، وتناولرت الثانیرة
معنى الربا من حیث اللغة والاصطلاح، أما الهقرة الثالثة فقد بحثرت فری أدلرة تحرریل الربرا، وعکررت
الرابعة أنواع الربا )الهضل والنسیئة(، أما الهقرة الأخیرة فقد تطرتت إلى الآثار الربویرة فری التنمیرة
البشریة من خرلال دراسرة بعرض المتغیررات الاتتصرادیة. وترد أثبرت البحرث فرضریته، فری أن هنرا
آثرار ا سرلبیة للربرا، اتضرحت مرن خرلال تحلیرل تلر المتغیررات تعیرق النهروض بأهرداف التنمیرة - -
البشریة.