Volume 33, Issue 105, Autumn 2011, Page 9-209

The Silver – Meal Method of Determining the Volume Batch for Production / Purchasing

Ayad Abdulkader

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 9-21
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161920

The present study of Silver-Meal heuristic lot size technique is to find the best quantity of purchasing, by minimizing holding and setup costs (ordering and carrying costs), and to explain that the silver-meal technique as a dynamic programming. Feeding the purchasing quantities into the MRP system (MRP1 and MRP2 systems) is easier and quicker in application and use compared to other lot sizes methods, such as the economic order quantity (E.O.Q) and the Wagner and Whitin approach. The Silver-Meal technique gives the same results as the theoretical Wagner and Whitin method when applied on Excel program (electronic spreadsheets) in order to calculate the quantity resulting from this technique and including it in the production schedule by the MRP system. The Silver-Meal method was applied on the Boys Clothing Factory which is part of the State Company of Readymade Clothes in Mosul and the current costs were compared with the costs after applying this method, whereby an abundance of costs was achieved upon using the Silver-Meal technique on the current situation in the researched factory. The abundance was represented by minimizing the setup and holding costs to the lowest possible degree in manufacturing and producing work overalls from polyester cloth, whereby the purchasing requests are forwarded from the manufacturing section through the commercial section

The Effect of Training Process In Enhance Organizational Performance

dr. Nahida Abdullah; Nisreen Badawi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 22-42
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161921


This current study came to show the relationships and effects of training human resources on the organizational performance. The study prepared to deal with two aspects; the first aspect tackled the theoretical frame of the study dimensions and their variables. The second aspect on the other hand includes the methodology of the study and its empirical framework. The study concentrated on the contribution and the effects which the trainees perform in the enhancement and support of the organizational performance. The State Company for Drug Industries and medical Appliances has been selected as a place for conducting the practical part of the study. Questionnaire was also used to collect data from individual samples of the study. This study depended upon two main hypotheses. Several statistical tools were used to analyze and test the hypotheses.

The Impact of Mental Image of the Service Company in some of Customers Future Purchasing Decisions

dr. Mohammed Al Khachroum; dr. Ali Gablak; Mahmoud Arid

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 43-60
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161922


The image of the company has a large impact on the company's success and sustainability. To gain a new customer may depend largely upon an image that is formed by the customer. The company success is not only required to attract new customers, but to keep with their customers current, and because of the difficulty in determining the impact of mental image of the company's service, and the size of this effect on Customers Future Purchasing Decisions. The current research aims to identify the impact of a mental image of the company's service on some future purchasing decisions for customers’ mobile phone service companies in Aleppo, as well as identify the relationship between some of personal variables and mental image of the company service. All this with a view to decision makers in the researched companies to reach the study findings and recommendations, contribute to the management of the mental image of their companies will be supportive of the direction of the positive behavioral customers. Accordingly, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to (250) student /and student at the University of Aleppo, and register for the academic year 2009-2010, from various faculties and institutes selected by convenience sample. A regression analysis and analysis of variance One-Way ANOVA from the statistical software package (SPSS.16.0) were used. It was found that image of the company's influence was significant for all purchasing decisions for future customers under study (customer trust in the company, customer commitment towards the company; customer intent to recommend good company), and the customers evaluation of the image of mind of a service company differed depending on the type of customer and number of years of participation in the service.

The Directions of Knowledge in Arab Countries

Abdul-Hameed Sabbagh; dr. Mohamd Mhabik

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161923


Knowledge becomes the most important factor in gaining fortune, and in achieving the economic and social development. So, all the world countries act to produce and acquire knowledge, and to employ it, in a unitary society, that is the society of knowledge, which tries to provide the suitable environment. The knowledge society is described as the current development in the human development march. It depends on producing, diffusion and employing knowledge, in the right way, in all activities to achieve the human being luxury, by establishing the type of knowledge, instead of the overwhelming the revenue production, as the case in the Arab area, in which the economic development depends on the revenue of the raw materials. Most the developing countries, especially the Arab ones, are very far from the knowledge-based economy. They are just markets to consume some final products of the knowledge technology. That is a result of the absence of knowledge society, and non activity of the research and development establishment in the Arab countries. Though the existence of knowledge in the Arabic countries, it is a scattered knowledge that need organizing and framing to be propulsive knowledge.

Competitive Marketing under the Environment of Strategic Uncertainty-Applied Study

dr. Ghassan Al-lamy; Mostafa Ismael

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 76-79
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161924

Environment of business firms as a strategic uncertainty requires an adoption of a business model that establishes the competitive marketing logic. Its basis is to achieve some kind of fitness between the competitive strategy and the marketing strategy, which leads to superior levels of strategic performance. The value of a firm in the financial market will interpret the strategic performance and the resulted maximized investment returns in the firm’s stocks thereby the wealth of its owners; founders and stockholders. The competitive marketing under the strategic uncertainty provides an analytical approach for evaluating effectiveness of the marketing activities in raising the competitive performance of a firm. Many financial measures are used for this purpose relating with the basic objective of all business firms represented by value maximization. The research aimed at building a thoughtful and philosophical-practical base tackles the relationship between the competitive strategy and marketing strategy under a strategic uncertainty. A sample consisted of ten Iraqi Industrial Joint Stock Companies traded at Iraq Stock Exchange, has selected for the purpose of analysis, in which investment's returns of stocks reflect the ultimate result of a strategic performance. The research problem and hypothesis contemporary environments have witnessed more volatility and complexity so that competition became fierce. Accordingly, business firms confront strategic uncertainty that makes the performance of a firm lagged behind the environmental change with decreased market value unless improve its ability to contain the strategic uncertainty. The problem of research has been interpreted in terms of a main hypothesis stated that "companies face more strategic uncertainty when they are losing their competitive positions in the market". The analysis and treatment of quantitative data are completed using Markov Chains and Nonlinear Programming; it reached many conclusions the most important one is the validity of the hypothesis of research.

The Impacts of Industrial Pollution on Human and Nature (Special Case Study on Sulfur in Mishraq)

dr. Abdul Ghafoor Kanaan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 98-110
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161925


In the recent decades, the world felt the danger of industrial pollution, because of excessive use of machine in the destruction of nature. This is negatively reflected on the life of human and made the organizations and governments think of facing the danger which threatens all types and forms. The most dangers of these are Sulfur Dioxide and other debris destructive to the human nature. Industrial countries realized this danger and enacted many rules to reduce the silent killer on the basis of this a field study which is conducted in Al-Mishraq Sulfur Field at Ninerah Governorate. This field left many effects of pollution on man and nature inside and outside and negative economic benefits. It is resulted in the destructions of nature and harms of workers in the field and neighboring villages. The study reached many important recommendations to deal with the resulting dangers on the production and Sulfur marketing and its derivatives from in the field. The last of which is the burning in the end of 2003 its dangers extended to the rest of Iraq and o

Contribution of Strategic Leadership in Reinforcing the Strategic Flexibility to Business Organizations A Study of the Opinions for a Sample of Strategic Leadership in the General Company for the Manufacture of Medicines and Medical Appliances in Nineveh

dr. Maan Al-Maadhedee; Ayman Mohammed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 111-140
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161926


The study aimed to measure and analyze the correlations and the effect of the practice of strategic leadership and of(Build the capability of dynamic core ,a Focus on building human capital , The use of technology seriousness effectively concern strategies, precious and building the structure and organizational culture in the as independent variables and (the strategic flexibility)as a variable accredited to meet the environmental changes taking place in organizations in the exercise of its work and effort for their survival ,as well as the discovery of the amount of variation in the impact of the practices referred to in promoting the strategic flexibility of the organization. The questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the data and to achieve the goals of the study and the nature of the relationship between its variables in the company for the manufacture of medicine and appliance in Nineveh. The study found a number of conclusions highlighted the practice of strategic leadership are connected and affect significantly that would contribute to draw the attention of strategic leadership in different organizations to identify the roles of those practices and the search for the most important mechanisms and means to enable its adoption as an important tool to achieve the strategic flexibility that enable the organization to respond rapidly to environmental changes accelerated and prepare for them.

Basel Measurement and Liquidity Risk Management Supervised by the Operating Banks in Gaza Strip

dr. Wafiq Al-Agha; dr. Naseem Abo Jamee’

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 141-163
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161927


This research aims to assess the reality of strategies and systems management controlling the risks of banking liquidity. This was adopted by the banks operating in the Gaza Strip through the elaboration of an integrated framework to help to develop these systems in accordance with the measurements and standard control used in international banking "the requirements of the convention on the Basel committee II". The most important results of this research are the efficiently managed cash at banks operating in the Gaza Strip, and senior management commitment departments activities due to banking liquidity strategy and liquidity risk managements. Developing effective controls on liquidity for most banks have also been succeeded in addressing a high proportion of wallet bad debts and those working with independent internal audit function, and raise their reports directly to the Governing Council. It is difficult for banks operating in the Gaza Strip to measure liquidity risk in according to Basel II approach, due to the lack of preconditions to apply these methods and contemporary standards, as banks using the standard method of measuring the liquidity risk, Palestinian monetary authority (PMA) not giving the banks operating in the Gaza Strip in the chance for adopting the suitable approach to calculate the liquidity in accordance to the Basel II approach. The banks operating in the Gaza Strip trays to apply the Basel Committee II declaration on the management and supervision of banking risks, and to assess the reality of policies impacts on the banks efficiencies, and regulations adopted by these banks to manage their liquidity risk in accordance with the international standards and guidelines.

Environmental Pollution Causes in Duhok City and Styles to Limit Its Effects (or Truces)

Jameel Issa

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 164-186
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161928


The problems of environmental pollution extends within the increase in economic activity continues on the one hand and the continuous increase in the transportation activities on the other; as well as the problems of deserting, forest removal in cities. Furthermore, Duhok City is considered as one of the Iraqi Cities that can get environmental pollution, simply because of the enormous growth in population and the increase in the number of automobiles rates besides the trespassing the green lands and architecture. The city is under desertification, drought stricken, the existence of factories is however the most effective items of polluting the environment in the city or borders. Furthermore, the excessive uses of pesticides have made the city a subject to the pollution, so it leaves daily thousands of tons of pollution to air, water and land. Thus, the following are the main causes of pollution:
- Cars leave nearly 901031 ton/yearly pollution to city air,
- Factories and workshops 8467.2 ton/yearly,
- Pesticides 375000 liter/yearly,
- Smoking 12262 ton/yearly,
- Various wastes 113150 ton/yearly.
As a part of departure the current study has shown some suggestions to limit the environmental pollution through the following:
- Increasing the environmental consciousness in the citizens by specified programs that share to limit pollution.
- Re - using and recycling the domestic and industrial wastes.
- Using clean technology in product operations (or processes).
- Planting trees in the city so it has been required to plant 951860 trees to limit cars pollution because each car needs 7 trees to delete its environmental effect.
- Using bio fuel that has less environmental pollution.
- Solving sanitation problem inside the city and exchanging it by plastic tubes under the ground.
- Maintaining sanitation and sour water in order not to pollute drinking water.
- The research has depended upon using recent references that relevant to the current topic.


The Extent of Implementation of Safety Environmental Management Strategies of Solid Waste A Pilot Study For Opinions Of A Sample Of Administrative Leadership In Mosul Municipality Directorate

dr. Saied Mohammed; Asmaa Al-Juwari

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2011, Volume 33, Issue 105, Pages 187-209
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2011.161929


The study sought to identify the reality of solid waste management and to identify the extent of solid waste management application strategies by the people or service units of the Directorate of Mosul Municipality, the study identified the problem by raising the following questions:
1. To what extent and clarity of the concept and application of knowledge and strategies for environmental management of solid waste?
2. What are the obstacles to the application of environmental management strategies for municipal solid waste in Mosul?
In order to reach the objectives of the study, a sample was selected from the administrative leadership (Director of the municipality and the deputy and division directors and heads of service units) to be room for the field of study. The study used a form of questionnaire to collect data, as well as personal interviews, relied on a set of statistical tools such as frequencies, percentages, averages and standard deviations. The study found the most important conclusions of the following:
1. Lack of definition of the responsibility for managing solid waste in the municipality of Mosul.
2. No preliminary treatment is enough for solid waste.
3. Lack of administrative elements to the training.
The study research included a set of proposals that can be relied upon to overcome the problems that prevent the safe application of environmental management of solid waste in the municipality of Mosul, as well as proposing a number of future studies as it deems appropriate researchers in the field of the present study.