Volume 31, Issue 94, Spring 2009, Page 9-334

The Activities of Physical Distribution and Their Effect in The Organizational Performance An Investigation Study for The Opinions of Managers of The Ninavah State Company for Drugs Industries and Medical Appliances

dr. Akram Al-Taweel; Ghanim Al- Keeki

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 9-33
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161810

This study sought to determine the effect of the physical distribution activities in the organizational performance in the Ninavah State Company for Drugs Industries and Medical Appliances. Where the activities of the physical distribution are considered one of the vital activities in the company by which the company can improve its organizational performance level. Because of the limitedness of the studies which deal with the effect relationship among these variables and especially in the Iraqi environment, the researchers tried to include the dimensions with their variables within a global frame as an attempt to study the relationship and impact between them. Generally, the current study tries to answer the following enquiries:
1. Do the managers of the searched company have a sufficient idea about the activities of the physical distribution, besides the organizational performance of the company?
2. What is the nature of the relationship between the activities of physical distribution and organizational performance for the searched company?
The study concluded into a set of results; the most important ones are:
- There is an abstract connection relationship and significant impact between the physical distribution activities and organizational performance of the searched company. Depending on these conclusions, a number of recommendations were proposed.


The Role of Marketing Mix Elements in Marketing the Information to the Beneficiaries An Investigation Study for Central Library (Mosul University) and Technical Institution Library

dr. Nibal Al-Murad; Mohammed Al-Mullah Hasan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 34-53
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161811


The importance of this paper is benefited from the science of marketing, almost in the mix of marketing the information and libraries to the beneficiaries. So, the importance of library is posited to be presenting services and information for all classes of society. As the library provides services for individuals, it is important to be acquainted with the needs and requirements of them. Hence, it is the core of marketing. The growth in IT and communications has managed potential changes in the nature of work library, and consequently affected the role of service quality presented to beneficiaries. Thus, the paper has been targeted to:
1. Theoretical aspect:
The researchers took the identification of marketing and some difficulties of libraries to market the services. As well as, explaining the marketing mix of the service, the the library can market the information and services.
2. The second included a field study carried out on a sample of (200) individual on the frame relationship between the marketing mixes on the one hand, and the services of information to the beneficiaries.
The frame relationship has been presented through statistical analysis, regression, correlation and the effect between the two variances in the study

Methods of Calculating in Islamic Economy -Comparing Research

dr. Abdullah Jubraeel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 54-90
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161812


The calculation of national income is forming one of the important subjects in economics، because it fulfills a large number of important and strategic goals for the economy of different countries، such as uncovering the communication nets among the different producer cells in the economy of the country، and its relationships with other countries. Also، it facilitates the operation of several plans and political economics، and to uncover the relationship between the monetary and real sectors in the countries economic. As well as making a fertile ground for labors syndicates to the negotiation forward labors chiefs to increasing the labor wages and increasing the level of life ness for this and the other classes in the society. Lastly، it helps to fulfill the advancement and balance developments for the country's economy. These important goals was the chief encouragement for writing this research، which uncover number of methods of calculating the national income in Islamic economy، between knowing - how to calculate and estimate it، and its differentiation with its similar methods in capital and social economics. Besides، the researcher explained that there are five different methods to calculate the national income of it. Each one has been improved in calculation than the other methods and agreed with it by supplying the same end of accounting for the national income.

Money Laundry and its Effect on the Economics of the Developing Countries

Shaher Al-Shaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161813


Money laundry is considered to be one of the expressions which has been tackled among the international scales. The international territories have recently interested in the issues of economic crimes and social security. Money laundry is connected extremely with illegal activities. The operations of money laundry usually exceed the limits of laws validity that may have been considered as crimes in nature inside the territorial borders. Money laundry is connected with the political corruption which is naturally accompanied with availing the execution of great resources and smuggling money abroad for laundering it and coming back in a lawful way or using money as materialistic properties or houses, gold or bank notes. The processing of money laundry is done in many tactics. It ranges from simplicity into sophisticated forms according to the circumstances and business nature. Technology has a dangerous role in developing the tactics for laundering money. It leads to smuggling of money abroad and loss in production of capitalism. It prevents production of goods and services which reflexes negatively on the national income


The Interpretations of Cattle Behaviors and their Impact on Investment Mobility in Stock Markets

dr. Maan Al-Maadhaeedi; dr. Hasan Al-Abbas

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 105-130
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161814


The importance of data in understanding and interpreting as well as aid to make the decision has become a decisive matter. So, concentration should be directed towards the wasted chances of losing data and no – reliance on in decision - making process almost on the individual level or total once. The upgrade of economic performance has resulted of using data and IT in developing the information systems to assess the result of decisions and facts. The progress in economic society, the association of uncertainty conditions and risk in decision making process yield a crucial importance to upgrade the investors' behavior that may increase the activity of economy partially and totally. Planning and policy analysis draw upon the variance in the individual behavior, this may lead to decrease of disbelief regarding the choices of financial markets dealings. Disclosure, broadcasting and scenario analysis are sorts of widespread tools used to treat the uncertain events and expected as well in the next future or more. Finally, the phenomenon of private behavior of the investor has widely tackled in planning and policy analysis in various applicable sectors such as financial market. The concept of Herd Behavior or Imitation or Fashion or Cascade or Follow-the-Leader is demonstrated as a sort of financial markets. This concept is however similar to the behavior and manner of investors inside the market. This sort of behavior may emerge as a result of two principles; first the range of collecting the financial setback such as the change in the general level of financial prices and the change in the prices of interest. Second; it depends on financial contagion, these two concepts seek in the market activity that any market setback may create a crisis in the same market as a result of acquired financial contagion of the investor's behavior

The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the Local and Foreign Resources Gaps in Turkey (1970 - 2006)

dr. Marwan Thanoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 131-146
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161815


A real progress during the past three decades has showed prominent economic relationships between the developed and growing countries. There was an enlargement in the foreign commercial movement, an increase in the flowing of the foreign capital, development in the technique of foreign investment (FDI), (transferring of technology, researches, promote the exports, as well as providing advices and experts and management). Turkey was one of the countries which attracted a massive amount of the foreign investment since its independence to accelerate the economic growth. The present study analyzed the complexities relating to the interaction between foreign and domestic sources of FDI in growth process of Turkey. Theories of foreign direct investment behavior and examines have been reviewed with the empirical studies about the role of them in developing the economic welfare in Turkey. The empirical analysis based on OLS, and we found; first, the FDI contribute positively to structure adjustment, and we confirmed that FDI is growth enhancing .Second, there is a direct effect of FDI in expanding the internal and external gaps in the Turkish economy.


The Trends of Top Management Towards Spreading Total Quality Management Culture An Investigation Study for General Sector of Industry at Ninavah Province

dr. Mahfoodh Al-Sawwaf; Layla Bilal

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 147-170
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161816

The aim of this study is to show the attitudes and behaviors of top management towards the total quality management and the aspects of applications on the industrial searched companies. The appropriate recommendations have been proposed to adopt the modern philosophy and approach through changing the organizational culture of quality culture.
This will be achieved by the training program, sharing of knowledge experiences and focus on the processes and results, instead of focusing on the results and also adopt the customer driven policy. As will as adopting effective information and systems.


The Social Effects of the Economic Détente and Reform Policy in Egypt

Marwan Rashid

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 171-190
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161817


The social effects of the economic reform and Détente policy in Egypt can be summarized in two factors: The first is income reduction due to the loss of jobs because of privatization policies or the difficulty of finding job opportunities.
The second factor is the increase of the cost of living due to the rising in prices. These two factors have caused the most dangerous two social effects: Unemployment and poverty .To reduce these effects, the Egyptian government has taken several procedures depending mainly on income maintenance and wealth maintenance. This research analyzed the offensive effects affecting the working class by applying the reform economic programmers on two levels:
The first level is: The level of distributing the local income. The second level is: The deterioration in the level of living of this class. The most important results that the researcher concluded are:
1. Reform programmers lead to the increase of unemployment and poverty levels in both the long and the short terms in the Egyptian society.
2. The procedures that the Egyptian government has taken to handle the bad effects of reform policy did not help in handling these effects, but only in reducing them.
The researcher recommended to manage policy of reducing expenditures only in the urgent situations, and not to depend the ready-made recipes of the international monetary fund and the international bank when solving the economic problems. The researcher, also, recommended that the aim of these programmers and reform policies is to handle, not to reduce the cases of these bad effects.


The Economics Effects of Environmental Pollution Sorts for Kirkuk Cement Factory and Its Future Expectations

dr. Ayad Al-Jalaby; Mohammed Al-Taee

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 191-218
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161818

The problem of pollution has become one of the global issues that should be encountered. The economic activity in certain sector as industrial sector may produce certain goods and services against supplying and providing certain kinds of pollution. Pollution can be looked at as productive goods as well as producing other sorts of goods. But, these kinds of goods differ from producing other goods as they yield other negative internal and external effects. One of these productive industries is cement industry. The study has been conducted on Kirkuk Cement Factory that the dust and sand sprayed over and the aggravation of solid debris have become a large scale threat of the current generation, the waste quantities product exceed their standards particularly with production decreases. It is expected that the future production while the decrease with an increasing of dust sprays and solid debris. Additionally, the lack of studies and researches in the field of the environmental pollution of industry in general and cement industry in specific had led to the effects environment and the inefficiency in applying environmental standards. The study concluded a group ignorance economic and environmental pollution.


Using of Taguchi Model in Estimating Hidden Cost of Deviation from Target Quality Specifications with the Application on the Textile Factory in Mosul

Muthana Al-Zaidy; Khalis Al-Nasser

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 219-233
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161819


The present paper primarily concerned with determining an appropriate accounting approach for estimate the Quality Loss which is often ignored and unrecorded in cost records. Moreover, the article aims at explaining the importance of the costs after identifying components of these costs. The major hypothesis supposed that the use of Quality Loss Function Model can provide a procedural method to present appropriate estimations for those costs and provide useful information to reduce those costs. The practical part of the paper included estimating the Quality Loss for samples of Mosul factory for spinning and weaving products. The results obtained to support the hypothesis of the study. The study concluded that the Quality Loss function model provides performance measures to evaluate the factory ability in gaining opportunity of reducing deviation from the targeted quality.

A Programming Portfolio to Select the Relation between Employment Pressure and Satisfaction (A proposed System)

Nema Al-Fackry; Suhair Dawood; Khansaa Sulaiman

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 234-251
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161820

The research includes an attempt to build a proposed experience system which aims to diagnose the cases of the functional pressure and the functional satisfaction for the employees and to direct the eyesight to how to do in supporting these directions for establishing a positive psychological environment to the employs. This can be done by decreasing the pressure in the work. The system design aims to provide lists and forms that facilitate the use of the system. In addition to that, the ability of displaying the knowledge base with the activities of adding and updating of its contents. In the theoretical part, the research included a definition of the experience systems and their contents, a definition of the concepts of functional pressure, functional satisfaction, and the functional design which is the important variable in existence of the functional pressure.


Application of Capital Asset Pricing Model in ALKWAIT Capital Market

dr. Sarmad Al-Jameel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 252-270
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161821


This research used the actual data of ALKWAIT capital market in estimating the capital asset pricing model. The application has three sides: the first one covered all companies listed in the market and the second side focused on the portfolios building during the research period, whereas the third took the market indices. However, this is the implication of the research objective which is studying the relationship between return and risk under the methodology of the capital asset pricing model. The research analysis indicated two important issues, the determination of beta coefficient for individual stock and for the portfolios. The result is significant in different levels of probability within the traditional capital asset pricing model.

Information and Communication Technology and its Role in Enhancement Approaches of Organizational Effectiveness Measurement Field Study in Sample from Private Sector Organizations in Mosul City

Amer Hadid; Alaa Al-Joubory

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 271-283
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161822

The research aims at highlighting the relation and the impact of information communication Technology by measurement approaches of organization effectiveness through a field study of some private sector organization at Mosul City. To realize the objective of the research, a questionnaire has been prepared in order to measure the relation the relation and impact among the variable an independent research (Information Communication Technology) and dependent variables (Measurement Approaches of Organization Effectiveness). The community of the research has been represented by the effective working organization of private sector in Mosul City. Moreover, the present research has been carried out six working organizations of the above - mentioned sector. Their choice has been deliberate because it is possible to test the actual variables of the research. The two researchers, in their turn, use several statistic methods particularly, Pearson variable to measure the degree of the relation and simple linear regression to meet the final results of the research. This research reaches the following results: The approach of strategic constituents is the highly affected by the communication technology. In fact, this indication to the Information communication technology that helps to satisfy (owners, officials, customers, debtors, governmental, institutions and civil society organizations). Finally, the present research recommends the necessity of taking into consideration of the organization. It never aims at concentrating on the approach for its own sake for measuring limited objectives unless the administration recommends it.


Comparison between Two – sided Power Distribution and Beta Distribution in Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Ahmed Maree

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 284-299
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161823


The planning process is considered to be one of the most important tasks in our practical life. The project is divided into a number of activities according to the plan. Each activity represents functional process which requires time in order to be carried out. This period of time is considered either limited or probable. The aim of research after studying the probable time of the activities is to find out the suitable distribution for calculating the range of an appropriate of the three uncertain times which include: optimistic, pessimistic and moderate time. As for Beta distribution It was previously considered a four fold parameter for adequate distribution which was used to estimate the average of the activity of triple times. In this research many exceptional problems have been put aside concerning Beta distribution usages one of them is giving four weights to moderate time compared with one Wight which is given to the optimistic time and another is given to pessimistic time. We have also adapted that method on the present practical & we have got an outcome which shows suitability of Two – Sided Power Distribution for time and activates.

The Assumption of Information Value in the Light of Life Cycle Concepts, Importance and Effect and the Possibility of Calculation

dr. Abdul Sattar Al-Udwany

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 300-318
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161824


The research aims to achieve multiple objectives, which achieved through a framework includes four stages. First specialized in testing the possibility of applying life cycle concept upon information, and is regarded the first one in this field. Second stage, emphasized the statue of information in the framework of downward stage which is not emphasized previously because researchers were emphasized mainly on the stage of information maturity, and sometimes on the generation of information and its development, which is still taught in the framework of processing operations for management information. Third, during which was the establishment of the educate framework to calculate the quantitative value of the reached information to get use of them in settling the annual payment for total handled information reaching to its net value which establish for the possibility to show the information in the general budget as well as its peers of other untouched assets and that in its total basis total value, annually payment settlement and net value. Finally the researcher emphasized the establishment of new concepts connected with the concept of downward information and the most important of them is the concept of consuming information value, its importance, its concept, and the ways of its measurement, which are accompanied by a number of suggestions.

Bayes's Analysis For Boisson Processes With Practical Application In Al-Salam Hospital/Mosul

Taha Al-Zubaidy; Mahmood Al-Abady

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 319-334
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161825


This paper studies the Boisson process, precisely the number of arrivals (according to the Boisson distribution) and inter - arrival times (according to the exponential distribution ) and arrival times (according to the gamma distribution) from the point view of bayes statistics which is posterior in information, i.e., using the past experiences which represents the prior distribution, besides the direct data, which represents likelihood function in founding posterior distribution of Boisson process, then estimate the mean and the variance of this distribution, and using it with the classic way in studying the number of patients arriving to the consultative clinic of fracture in al-Salam hospital/Mosul. The researchers concluded that bayes statistics, which is posterior in information, could be used studying stochastic process, especially the Boisson process.