Volume 29, Issue 88, Autumn 2007, Page 9-275

Supply of Kerosene and Benzene and Factors Affecting on its in Sulaimania Governorate during 1996 - 2001

Dr. Aras Mahmood; Niaz Nori

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 9-26
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161673

The factor of fuel supply in Sulaimani governorate/Iraq, has played an effective role in the economic activity. This factor has been of potential and negative effect on the current economic and social development in Sulaimani governorate. There were various factors affected negatively in the fuel supply including economic and non - economic factors. This research tries to explain the nature of fuel supply and examine the factors, in order to solve the problem of the fuel supply in the governorate as well as making this economic variable more positive in the economic and social development.

Obstacles and Resuls of Client Satisfaction About Banking Services Analytical Study of AL–Rasheed and AL–Rafeidain Banks in Ninavah Governorate

Buthayna Ahmed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 27-41
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161674


Several of organizations aim at attracting high and comprehensive satisfaction of the customers. This can be done through developing the performance and to do better jobs to satisfy the customers' needs to overcome competitive. The organization that may depend on the customer satisfaction becomes an expert in customers forming and not only in forming goods and services. This is due to the fact that if a customer is slightly satisfied, s/he will be simply deviated to other offers; unlike highly satisfied customers who will be less deviated to other offers and organizations of better services.
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The Impact of the Marketing Mix in Achieving Hotel Service Quality An Analytical Study for Opinions of a Number of Quests with Several Hotels Organizations in Dohuk City

Khayree Awsow

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 42-66
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161675


The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between the Marketing. Mix and Hotel Service Quality (Quests Satisfaction), the importance of the Study comes from the Subject of Hotel Services in Dohuk City to offer database for the Hotel Services Quality and the extend of guests satisfaction about the services. The low level of marketing activities in hotel organization offer the quests in additional the weakness abilities to build marketing mix for target market which was the cause for low number of quests. The sample was consisted of (75) guests a number of first class and deluxe Hotel in Dohuk City. They were chosen randomly in order to gather the data from the field, for these reasons a questionnaire was developed. The research hypothesis was tested with the use of some statistical tools. The research concluded the necessary of hotel to focus on criteria being determined by guest, this will better meet the guest's satisfaction.

Food Security Situations in Developing Countries Economical Comparative Study for medium and a lower income Countries A Model of Gain Crops

Dr. Salim AL-Najafi; Amina AL-Hassoun

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 76-80
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161676


The study of food security situation in low and medium income of developing countries singles out “wheat” among grain crops has been of vital importance. The method of comparative economic analysis has been tackled as well as depending on the quantitative method in the estimation of the results with the use of (S.W.R). The paper has concluded that the effect of wheat gap indicator is however affected in both groups by food prices and gross population. In a study of the cross – sectional foodstuffs prices, it has came out with varying quantity and influence flexibility, they were negative in the countries with low income level per capita where it reached the rate of % 0.68, while the rate went over % 7, in the countries with medium income level per capita. As for the population, it has recorded a positive flexibility rate for both groups of countries reaching up to % 0.43 and % 4.6 respectively. The paper also found that the time series are affected by total rate debts of services and goods exports reaching up flexibility in Egypt (%0, 2), and Morocco (% 0, 5), and affected by the storage of wheat reaching to flexibility (% 0,007), and (% 0, 02), respectively. The study recommends that there must be a step to be taken with the aim of amending the economic - decision making specially as concerning the agricultural domain and encouraging ecological investment.

Quality Ethics – Benchmarking Ethics as a Model: Theoretical Approximations

Dr. Moyassar Ahmed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 81-101
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161677

The current research aims at outlining the required principles and rules to succeed the application of the concept of benchmarking. It also explains the theoretical junctures among the hampers, ethics and rules of benchmarking. Achieving the targets, analytical description has been drawn to show the theoretical principles as well as seeing the probable phenomena of violating ethical standards. The study is expected to discuss five aspects; the first has reviewed a literature on the concepts of ethical standards of businesses. The second has referred to the concepts and ethics of quality management as well. The third has showed however the quality ethics of benchmarking. Fourth has finally debated the opportunities of violations in the rules of benchmarking and the methods of limitations. The research then concluded into a gist of ideas to accomplish the analytical aspects

The Customer Attitude of Health Services Foundations A Field Study on Al – Khansaa Teaching Hospital in Mosul City

Nafa Hamied

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 102-119
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161678


Services emerged in different societies as common phenomenon nowadays. The direction toward reducing expenditure on consumption goods is faced by increasing the expenditure on other services in the stereotypical life. Likewise the global direction toward marketing is however spotted to concern the services that are %70 of individual income are expended on different services. These services included medical treatment; insurance with different aspects, education, tourism and annual test for all healthy person in Europe, the needs which comes from the social requirements that involves medical check services for marriage to the immunization in general. In these cases the person may find regulations for services due to the increasing desire to avoid infections. The foundations of health services are generally depend on the interchangeable dealing; as it is the idea that depends on the marketing the need for health services.

Measuring the Effect of Determinants of Extractive Industrial Output

Dr. Abdul Aziz Abul Karim; Mohammed Hasan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 120-133
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161679


Manufacturing industry sector considers one of the principles support for sociality and economical progressing to the different countries in cadre which is sharing in it ,like income sources variety, and limit of the structure disequilibrium impact, specialty in the developed considers ,for exploration purpose on impact to this state in the developed considers with choosing a Syria and Jordon in the period 1980-2002, as limited for place and time that is performance it. By depending on comparative analysis methodical ,and by invest some econometrios models can limitation the economical variables impact and the other that is consider as defined to the manufacturing industry gross.
The research finally reacted to suggestions total at the first glories necessity to state role in the developing social and economic rest build and to review in the government support politic for the projected and an economic establishment

The Effect of Monetary Policy on Market Value of Stocks and Bonds Analytical Study for a Sample of Arab Gulf Countries

Dr. Rafiaa Al- hamdani; Dr. Aus AL-Juaijati

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 134-151
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161680


The research aims at studying the effect of the changes in currency offer in the financial markets. This has been done in a selected sample of the Arab Gulf Countries via using Granger Causality (GC) and Vector Auto Regression (VAR) tests.
The results of the Causally Test showed that there is a causative relation whatsoever between the change in the currencies offer and the market value of stocks. The results of Causality Test have emphasized the validity of results gained from Auto Regression after determining the best model according to the results of (AIC) standard. It has been shown that the market value for the stocks can be affected by the changes of various values in money offer. This may agree with the hypothesis of the research that demonstrating the change in money offers over the market value of stocks.

Measuring Poverty Lines and Their Indicators in Two Residential Collectives (Binasloua and Daratoo) in The Year 2003

Dr. Sabir Othman; Khithkhan Aziz

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 152-175
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161681


Poverty is considered as a complex phenomenon that has economic, social and political serious dimensions. Further, poverty is not restricted to special geographical area or periods. Therefore, if the problem of poverty aggravates and is not tackled properly, it will lead to negative repercussions that might threat the society as a whole.
The sample of the study restricted to two residential collectives; considers that the majority of those people are emigrants from their destroyed villages or they are forcibly expelled from Kirkuk Governorate. For these reasons, poverty is expected to be a dominant characteristic in the area under consideration. So, the current study aims at measuring poverty indices which might help programs that are designed to reduce the poverty severity. Hence, the study employed objective methods to measure extreme, absolute, relative and subjective poverty.
Generally speaking, the results show that the degree of poverty is not relatively severe as one might think in the area under consideration. The result suggests that the United Nations' resolution 986 (oil for food) positively affected in the reduction of poverty. Finally, the research recommends useful suggestions that might serve to better overcome poverty in the area considered.

ِِِThe Comparison of Adaptive Filtering and Back Propagation Neural Networks in Time Series

Dr. Safaa Saffaw; Muthaina Mustafah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 176-192
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161682


An increasing interest in studying the time series has been recently regarded. One of the potential methods in analyzing the time series and forecasting the future values is the adaptive filtering. A modern method of analyzing time series is the artificial networks in forecasting. The purpose of current paper is to compare the adaptive filtering ARMA(p,q) model with Back propagation neural networks. The mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage has been adopted as a statistical criteria mean to find the best one and get a good result. Application was done on alive births of males' data of Mosul city using ANNs, and AF techniques.

The Effects of Interdiction Laws on Determination of Economic Freedom For Social Levels and Different Economical Domains in the Islamic Economy

Abdullah Jubraeel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 193-220
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161683


Economic freedom is expected to be one of the most fundamental bases of any global economic system, whatever economic philosophy was. As any economic system, Islamic economy has embarked on giving a great potential to the economic freedom. The Islamic economy has put rules of interdiction to organize the limits of this sort of freedom. Thus, undoubtedly rules of interdiction have been regarded to achieve individual and collective interests as well as both targets similarly. They also achieve economic and social welfare for all individuals of the society and the economic progress and development progressively.

The Discrimination between Digital Photos by Using Canonical Discriminate Function

Omar Al - Rawi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 221-233
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161684

In current research, one of scientific methods to discriminate between populations will be treated. This can be done by using (Matlab) program to transfer digital photo to a digital form, after that photo has been treated as an independent population, then we analyzed data and compare the results. It is important to imitate them by using canonical discriminate function to classify digital photos that will give us a new way of facilitation search. However, after we transferred it to the digital form, we depend on a higher eigenvector who is corresponding higher eigenvalue. This one according to the number of population we dial with it. In this research, we considered four populations, and every population is digital photo we transferred it to data by using (Matlab) program, symbolic every population depending on the canonical discriminate. We depended on many program (SPSS, Minitab, S-Plus, Matlab) to get the result of three higher eigenvalue which corresponding three higher eigenvector for (A) Matrix. The final steps assimilation has been demonstrated to get three canonical discriminate functions to discriminate between digital photos which facilitate the eigenvector for (A) matrix, and the resulted as the flowing, discriminate between digital photos in the first canonical discriminate function which is the best one. The second rank is the second canonical discriminate function; in the last stage is the third canonical discriminate function.


The Relationship Analysis of Quality Dimensions and Realizing Product A Pilot Study for Managers' Opinions in Youth Cloths Factory in Mosul

Majid Saleh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 234-275
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161685


This current research aims at determining the definition of quality and dimensions; as well as realizing the product as one of the most potential requirements of ISO9001-2000. It also aims at analyzing the relationships that hold these dimensions.
Acuity of competition has however motivated several organizations to seek certain advantages in order to upraise the opportunity of success in local and international markets. As a result attention has been increased toward studying debating the equipments of customers needs and responding them in time with appropriate price and quality.
As for the great importance of ISO in many several organizations according to bulks and frameworks as well the degree of contribution to reach the quality standards, the organizations are nowadays striving to acquire the best quality standards via using ISO. This is done in order to apply the requirements of ISO, increase the quality of products and competing in the local markets.
So, the current research is however an attempt to acknowledge the relations among quality dimensions that has been used in the search and acquiring product. Hence, it can adopt the most influential relations that will lead to increase the purchasing in comparison with a similar organization then reaching the desired objectives.