Main Subjects : Accounting, Finance and Banking Sciences


Profitability Indicators and Their Impact on Market Value - a Study of a Sample of Commercial Banks Listed in the Iraq Stock Exchange for the Period 2004-2019

Abdullah M.T. AlTaei محمد طاهر; Bashar Th. M. AlShakarchi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 288-308
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131119.1118

The study aims to use traditional indicators that have been used little before, namely profitability indicators, as these indicators are one of the early warning models for banks in case of exposure to financial risks and it consists of seven basic indicators which are the rate of return on ownership (ROE), the rate of return on Assets (ROA), net operating profit margin (NOPM), earnings per share (EPS) net profit margin (NPM), utilization of asset benefit (AU), equity multiplier EM) The research sample included ten Iraqi private commercial banks for a period of ( 2004 -2019); This is due to the researcher's inability to obtain financial data for more than one number of banks, and the validity of the research hypotheses including the possibility of using profitability indicators in evaluating the performance of Iraqi private commercial banks has been proven. The value of the multiple correlation coefficient between these indicators on the one hand and the market value of banks on the other hand (0.78), and this value is statistically significant at the level (1%). Banks are also evaluating their performance; By relying on their capabilities, through which they can identify losses and know their causes, and then find ways to address them, in addition to being able to draw up an appropriate basic strategy to raise and improve their current level of performance.

Testing the Investment Momentum Strategy and Forming its Portfolio- An Applied Study of a Sample of the Stokes of Companies Listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange

Saadallah Mohammed Obaid AL-Nuaimi; Nawar Aldabbagh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 177-193
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130943.1113

The research sought to test the investment momentum strategy and form its portfolio in the Iraqi Stock Exchange as a field of application, aiming to test the ability of that strategy to achieve higher risk-adjusted returns and compare the performance of momentum portfolios with the performance of the market portfolio, as well as testing the efficiency of the Iraq Stock Exchange at the level The weak indirectly, relying on the basis of applying this strategy based on the assumption that the stocks that achieve great returns during the formation periods (3 to 12) months will continue to achieve those returns over a time period ranging from (3 to 12) months, and that the stocks that A loss is achieved during the formation periods (3 to 12) months that will continue to achieve that loss over a period ranging from 3 to 12 monthThese foundations have been relied on to build the momentum portfolio by buying the winning shares during the test period and adding them to the portfolio and short selling the losing stocks during the holding period so that the portfolio is rebalanced every month s, and the results of the application resulted in the failure of the investment momentum strategy to achieve higher risk-adjusted returns, in addition to the achievement of significant losses and risks by the momentum portfolios. Compared with the market portfolio in addition to the inability to rely on stock prices and their historical trading volumes in predicting their prices and future returns because the market is efficient at a weak level, the research recommended urging investors and academics to research and test other trading strategies such as value stocks, growth stocks, and accruals-based trading strategies to identify their ability to achieve higher risk-adjusted returns to discover and guide investors towards ways and methods of selecting stocks to invest in.

The Impact of Some Economic Variables on the Performance of A Sample of Arab Financial Markets For the Period From (2011-2019)

Abdulaziz Al-Shawi; Nameer Alsaegh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 340-363
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131254.1124

The study aimed to present some measures of performance of Arab financial markets and to build a model in which it is possible to clarify the size and direction of the impact of macroeconomic variables (exchange rate, inflation, gross domestic product, interest rate, oil price) as (independent) variables in the performance indicators of Arab financial markets (number of Listed companies, annual change in price index, value of traded shares) as variables (approved) and for a sample consisting of seven Arab countries (UAE, Bahrain, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Egypt) for the period (2011-2019).
To achieve this, the correlation between the studied variables was measured and the Chi-square test was used to detect the presence of anomalies in the data for the sample countries and the Shapiro-Wilk test was used to detect the normal distribution of the study variables, and the weighted least squares method (WLS) was used. The results revealed that the exchange rate variable had its opposite effect in all the approved study models, while the gross domestic product reflected its positive effect in most of the models, and in light of the results, the researcher recommended the need for great interest by investors in following up exchange rate fluctuations to make and take decisions Efficient, effective, and a more accurate understanding of the relationship between price movement and economic variables within the Arab financial markets, since exchange rates are considered one of the investment tools, which is discussed as one of the competing options for investments

The Effect of Taxes on the Performance of the Stock Market-Arab Stock Markets as A Model

Awse Ali Al Khatab; Bashar AL-Iragi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 244-263
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131009.1115

The research aims to provide a comprehensive and in-depth picture of the theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that framed and explained the mechanism of transmission of direct and indirect influence through which taxes can play an important and prominent role in interpreting the performance of the stock market, as well as building a quantitative model capable of clarifying the size and direction of the impact of taxes. And some other controlling variables (inflation, interest rate, economic growth, money supply, government spending, public debt) as illustrative variables, in the performance indicators of the stock market, which was expressed by the market index, and the turnover rate as response variables, for a sample of Arab countries (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia, Lebanon, Bahrain) for the period (1997-2019), To achieve this, we relied on the aggregate regression methodology (PRM), the fixed-effect model (FEM), and the random effect model (REM), which are based on the balanced double data (Balanced Panel Data), to obtain results closer to reality and reach an analysis It can be used in investment decisions, and the results revealed the contribution of taxes to the positive impact on the performance indicators of the stock market for the sample countries.

The impact of the budget deficit on the performance of a sample of Arab financial markets

Awse Ali Al Khatab; bashar AL.Iraqi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 225-243
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131049.1116

The research aims to provide a comprehensive and in-depth picture of the theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that framed and explained the mechanism of transmission of direct and indirect influence through which the budget deficit can play an important and prominent role in interpreting the performance of the stock market, as well as building a quantitative model capable of clarifying the size and direction of the impact The budget deficit and some other controlling variables (inflation, interest rate, economic growth, money supply) as illustrative variables, in the stock market performance indicators, which were expressed by the market index, the market value of traded shares, and stock turnover being response variables, for a sample of Arab countries (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia, Lebanon, Bahrain) for the period (1997-2019), To achieve this, it was relied on the aggregate regression methodology (PRM), the fixed effect model (FEM), and the random effect model (REM), which are based on the balanced double data (Balanced Panel Data), in order to obtain results closer to reality and reach an analysis It can be used in investment decisions, and the results revealed the participation of the budget deficit in the negative impact on the stock market performance indicators for the sample countries,Decision makersmust move towards financing public debt by means of stimulating the bond market, through the use of non-inflationary tools.

Diagnosing the reality of Murabaha financing in Islamic banks (Analytical study of a sample of Iraq Islamic banks)

Hakar mohammed saleem Abdullah; dilveen Mahmood Rasol

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 154-176
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130878.1112

The Murabaha financing formula represents one of the important tools for Islamic banks that they use in their investment banking activity and the most widespread on, and in order for these banks to be able to maintain their customers and gain other new customers; It is necessary to pay attention to various legitimate investment methods, including Murabaha financing, and to manage it efficiently and effectively to achieve its declared goals to support economic activity and comprehensive economic and social development.
The goal of this research is to diagnose the reality of Murabaha financing in Islamic banks (the study sample) through a set of financial ratios which are: (the percentage of return on investment, the profitability ratio of the investment method, the relative weight of the Murabaha formula, the growth rate) and through the analysis of bank data (the study sample) for the period from (2015-2019), which numbered (5) banks from among the banks listed in the Iraq Stock Exchange. One of the most important findings of the study is the high rate of return on investment for the Murabaha financing formula in the surveyed banks, which is a positive indicator and indicates the development of the efficiency of using the Murabaha financing formula by banks (the study sample). In light of the results, the study suggests the necessity for the surveyed banks to focus on maximizing the rate of return on investment by investing in the Murabaha formula, because the higher the rate of return through investing in Murabaha financing, the more this leads to maximizing the total revenues

Measuring financial fragility using the (MINSKY) model for a sample of Jordanian industrial companies for the period (2005-2019)

ZIAD AlHayali; Rafea I. ALHamdani

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 109-133
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130819.1110

The research aims to measure the extent of financial fragility that companies operating within the Jordanian industrial sector may suffer from for the period (2005-2019) and registered on the Amman Stock Exchange. To this unobtrusive risk, which is (the risk of financial fragility) by managers and investors in order to hedge and avoid it, as it is one of the unsystematic risks that may afflict companies and institutions that appear to be sound and carry out their activities successfully, but in the event of their exposure The simplest financial shock may collapse and enter into financial problems that may lead it to bankruptcy and liquidation, which also contributes to the orientation of this concept, which is characterized by somewhat modernity of financial concepts, especially within the Arab community, to attract researchers and academics to study and analyze this risk and reduce it and its effects that it leaves from It could be a cause of public financial crises, and the Minsky accounting framework index was chosen to measure financial fragility, and the research reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which was that the majority of companies with The Jordanian Industrial Company, which is registered on the Amman Stock Exchange, is one of the small-sized companies based on the size of the assets it owns, as well as the majority of companies that suffer from financial fragility..

The Relationship Between the Indicators of the Corona Pandemic and Some Variables of the Performance of the Iraq Stock Exchange

Namir A. AlSaegh; MOHAMED ALHAJ BAKR

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2022, Volume 41, Issue 133, Pages 364-376
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2022.132367.1156

The financial environment has often exchanged roles and influences between it and the external environment, and the extent of influence has reached the extent that these effects are reflected in price, value, Trading volume, and price rates that have reached negative limits, and this has not happened throughout financial history. From this, it becomes clear that the Corona pandemic has constituted a precursor to turning points in contemporary financial thought, which includes institutions, financial markets, and financial instruments, that is, the entire financial system. Entirely and not dependent on a particular country or territory. So, the research stems from a research problem that states that excluding a market, a sector, or even a particular country from the effects of Corona may be considered an ideal or a fantasy, as a business has stopped in all its stages, funding levels decline, investment rates drop, as well as the depletion of reserves, working capital and retained profits, not to mention what it suffers from. Financial markets are mainly exposed to traditional and non-traditional risks, which led to weakening performance and trading indicators for companies and sectors on the basis that Covid-19 indicators are likely to be reflected in an impactful outcome on the performance of financial markets as a whole.Hence, the research hypothesis was formulated that the Iraqi Stock Exchange, with its inclusion of indicators such as the general index and traded stocks, is likely to be negatively, morally, and importantly affected by unconventional (extreme) risks such as Covid-19, including the number (cases) confirmed and new injuries and deaths. The college and the new, and after standard tests, the research reached many conclusions, perhaps the most important of which was that the indicators of Covid-19 had negative effects on the performance of these markets during the research period, despite their violation in only two independent indicators in both models, as the pandemic affected the stock markets due to Uncertainty about the first and second waves of the pandemic, as well as the increasing number of infections and deaths, The study also found many proposals, the most important of which is that countries should prepare for second and third waves of infections, and with them, they must exercise proactive action to remedy what can be remedied, hedge against fluctuations, and address the imbalances and failures that accompanied the first wave, as well as establishing a global fund in which all countries participate within certain contributions for the purpose of Confronting and anticipating more complex global health conditions. The danger is global, and the response must be global.

The role of fiscal stimulus packages in addressing economic conditions during the Covid-19 pandemic

Mohammed D. Mohammed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 344-362
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131633.1144

This research aims to analyze the role of financial stimulus packages in influencing economic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, through some financial policies taken by the research sample countries to address the economic conditions in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research included all countries within the classifications of the International Monetary Fund into three groups classified according to their financial and economic capabilities for the year 2020. The multi-sectional regression model was used to measure the effect of the explanatory variables that represent financial stimulus packages (the volume of grants and subsidies, the volume of public spending, the volume of public debt excluding health spending, the volume of lost revenues) as percentages of GDP on the approved variables represented by the expressive poverty and unemployment rate. On the economic conditions, and through what the analysis showed from the acceptance of the research hypotheses that stipulate the significance of the relationship, whether it was negative or positive between the interpreted and approved variables, as the interpreted variables varied in their impact on the approved variables, and the main results of the research indicated that the financial stimulus packages had an impact Positive in the variables of economic conditions in light of the COVID-19 pandemic in some countries of the research sample in the opposite of other countries, depending on the financial and economic capabilities of countries.

Test Some Determinants of the Financial Performance of Iraqi Insurance Firms is An Econometrics Analytical Study

Zainab M. A. Alhialy; Nameer Alsaegh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 208-224
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130268.1098

The research aims to shed light on the most important transformations in the insurance business and highlight the role and specialness of insurance activities in the financial system and the economy as a whole, as well as the role that may be left by some independent variables represented by financial decisions, finance, and investment decisions and the dividend and working capital in some performance indicators and trading as the return on assets, return on share and market value, based on a research problem centered on insurance activities in Iraq and the weak impact it suffers, the absence of incentives to deal, and the decline in insurance awareness levels, which was reflected in declining financial performance indicators affected by these financial decisions and their deviations through the follow-up of the time series Of the firms that practice this activity and are listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange, and the tests came on them using the weighted least squares method. The study with its three models concluded that the rate of return on assets was one of the most affected models, specifically with fixed assets, which is expressed by the tangibility of assets, the growth rate in profits, and net working capital. The research also found a set of proposals for The most important of them is the necessity of following up the short-term indicators of each of the current assets and the current liabilities due to the severity of the vulnerability during the research period, specifically with such type of financial firms.

The Impact of Fintech's on Banking Profitability Applied Study on A Sample of Arab Banks

Sura Alsultan; Maan W. Al- Maadhedee

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 244-261
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130104.1091

The research aimed to see the impact of finTech's use of financial performance in a sample of Arab banks operating in some Arab markets selected at finTech's level of use and the availability of data needed to conduct field analysis, and four Arab markets were selected: (Saudi Arabia, The Kingdom of Bahrain, Kuwait, Palestine) for the period (2005-2019).
Based on the results reached, there were many conclusions, it became clear that FinTech contributed to the increased profitability of Arab research banks, and finTech's adoption and performance in profitability was reflected through some of its tools, particularly (ATMs, and the number of points of sale) which had a moral impact, which explains the speed of the provision of banking services and the reduction of their costs, especially in finTech.
This can be explained by the fact that FinTech has an impact on improving the reputation of banks that have employed FinTech tools in the market, which may be reflected in the increased popularity of investors and customers (customers) in the banking market.

The Impact of International Oil Prices on the Return of the Market Portfolio - A Study of the Iraq Stock Exchange for the Period 2012-2019

Ashti Abdulsattar Al-Mizori; Ahmed Jassem Alabbas

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 225-243
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130175.1094

This study dealt with the issue of the investment portfolio through a number of objectives, the most important of which is about the impact of oil price fluctuations, along with the main economic variables, on the returns of the market portfolio, by applying to all sectors listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange, based on the quarterly relative data with 32 views during the period from 2012-2019, using a number of different regression analysis models as well as programs and mathematical statistical methods. To that, the study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that there is an indirect relationship between oil price rates and economic variables with rates of returns for the market portfolio, and this relationship is based on a variable There is only one broker, which is the money supply, and it is also possible to build a number of models that explain at high rates between the changes in the rates of oil prices with the rates of returns of the Iraq Stock Exchange portfolio, and the study recommends the necessity of diversification in the investment portfolio by choosing the economic sectors that are affected by varying levels with changes Oil prices to achieve a kind of balance between the return and risk of the market portfolio.

Measuring operational efficiency in some sectors in the Iraqi budget for the period 2005-2019

oday salim Ali; Ahmed Jassem Mohammad

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 131, Pages 315-331
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.129846.1083

There is no doubt that governments seek to achieve operational efficiency for any of the spending sectors, which is the efficiency that includes achieving maximum value for money and efficiency that aims to achieve the ultimate goals of government policy. In this research, the two researchers seek to measure the operational efficiency of some sectors of spending in Iraq, which are (investment spending (represented by spending on infrastructure), spending on education, and spending on health) during the period 2005-2019 using data envelope analysis that makes each year of the budget year a unit. make a decision. The research found that the efficiency of spending goes towards less spending in the budget, meaning that with the increase in spending, there is no improvement in performance indicators, meaning that the increase in spending on the studied sectors without leading to improvement in performance indicators indicates that there is a great waste in spending on these Sectors. The study recommends the possibility of reducing spending instead of the volume of waste in spending, which gives the same performance results in the case of reduction, or the adoption of the budget of programs and performance to improve performance indicators of the ministries spending on them.

Impact of Some Macroeconomic Variables on the Development of the Financial Sector A Model For Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) States

nawar kanaan aldabbagh; Bashar Ahmad AL-Iraqi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 130, Pages 204-230
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127995.1040

The research aims to provide a deep and comprehensive picture of the theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that dealt with diagnosing the impact of some macroeconomic variables on the development of the financial sector, in addition to exploring an objective quantitative model that can monitor the nature, size, and direction of this effect and explain its mechanism and channels of transmission. By adopting the methodology of aggregate regression models (PRM), fixed effect (FEM), and random effect (REM) that are based on the Balanced Panel Data, for the GCC countries for the period (2005-2017). The results of the assessment revealed the participation of the trade openness variable in its positive impact on the three indicators of financial sector development, (BC) which expresses the bank credit granted to the private sector as a percentage of GDP, (TD) which indicates the bank's concentration (the percentage of bank assets that It is held by the first three banks) and (SPV) which reflects market fluctuations, while the inflation variable (INF) exerted a negative effect on (BC), (TD) and (IS), finally, the growth variable (GRO), which negatively affected ( BC)

The impact of the public budget deficit in promoting the development of the financial sector: Gulf Cooperation Council countries as a model

nawar kanaan aldabbagh; Bashar A. ALIragi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 130, Pages 51-76
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.168685

The research aims to provide a deep and comprehensive picture of the theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that dealt with the analysis and interpretation of the mechanism and channels of the impact that can be exercised by high levels of public budget deficit in strengthening and developing the financial sector, in addition to foreseeing an objective quantitative model that can diagnose the nature, size, and direction of this impact. And the interpretation of its transmission mechanism and channels, by adopting the methodology of aggregate regression models (PRM), static effect (FEM), and random effect (REM) that are based on the balanced longitudinal data (Balanced Panel Data) for the Gulf Cooperation Council countries for the period (2005-2017). The results of the assessment revealed the contribution of the public budget deficit variable in its negative impact on the financial sector development indicators, (BC) which expresses the bank credit granted to the private sector as a percentage of GDP, and (TD) which refers to the bank credit granted as a percentage Of total bank deposits, while its negative impact was shared in the two financial sector development indicators, (SMC), which expresses the ratio of market value to the gross domestic product, and (SMT), which reflects the stock market turnover and the economic growth variable (GRO) also influenced Negative in both (BC) and (TD).

The role of the performance prism in evaluating banking performance: An applied study at the Middle East Bank

zahraa Khalil; Layth Noman Hassoun

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 130, Pages 179-203
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.128029.1044

The research aims to shed light on the performance prism model and its role in evaluating performance in institutions, and the problem of the research lies in whether it is suitable for evaluating banking performance, and the research dealt with targeting one of the banks, the Middle East Investment Bank, to be a sample for research by analyzing the private financial data found in The annual reports of the bank for the period from (2010-2017), and one of the most important findings of the research is that the performance publication is an appropriate model for measuring performance, as it helped in translating and implementing strategic objectives due to its involvement of all stakeholders (shareholders, suppliers, employees, customers, and others). The results of the evaluation are that there is a weakness in the financial and non-financial ratios of the bank, as it was noticed that there is fluctuation in the activity and that the performance is weak, The study recommended searching for the causes of low performance, identifying weaknesses and trying to address them, and working on the proper construction of the foundations of performance evaluation by relying on comprehensive, integrated and interrelated indicators of financial and non-financial performance indicators that meet the needs of all multiple stakeholders

Technical analysis capabilities and their impact on the performance of shares: An analytical study of the shares of Asiacell company listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange

Shahad Aldabbagh; Doaa Noman Mohammed AlHusseini

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 130, Pages 292-310
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.128630.1059

The research seeks to determine the ability of some technical analysis indicators in determining the timings of buying and selling and thus making the right investment decision, where the research hypothesis confirmed the possibility of the investor to achieve exceptional returns with a reasonable amount of risk if adopted strategy of merging indicators (RSI, Stochastic, Bollinger Band, the study was conducted on Assail Telecommunications Company listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange, for the period from (1/1/2019-31/12/2019), and the research found that the strategy of merging the three indicators (RSI, Stochastic, Bollinger Band) enables the investor to avoid some unwanted signals that involve low returns or significant losses, especially as the process was accompanied by high fees and commissions, and the most prominent recommendations were to provide that the strategy of merging indicators to obtain correct and non-misleading signals, which leads to increased profitability as the main objective sought by the investor and avoid the risks associated with the investment process.

Merger approach as an option to enhancing the capabilities of stumbling banks: an applied study of the banks listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange

Amina al khalifa; Bashar Th. Alshukarchi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 130, Pages 330-348
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.128599.1058

This research deals with the banking merger for treating the reality of troubled banks in Iraq, especially after the central bank decision in 2019 to encourage the banking mergers. The research aims to introduce the conceptual framework about the merger and troubled bank, and logistic regression model, and the practical study that contains a sample of special commercial banks in the Iraqi stock market. The main hypothesis of the research is: (Encourages of the mergers processes between the Iraqi banks have positive effects on the improving the performance efficiency of the troubled banks). That is contributing to the expanding the financial inclusion and big spread for the bank's branches, and raise the financial indicators and improving the levels of liquidity and profits for the new entity bank.
            The banking merger represents the best tool to contain the banking troubles and problems, the main goals of the research represents in determining the financial indicators that may be used in determining the trouble banks that are certificated to the merger. Besides determining the trouble banks that is possible to merge according to its financial indicators by using the logistic regression. The research concluded some conclusions, first of them is the merger is one of the main the least expensive tools for restructuring for treating the trouble bank problems. The research recommended the formation of a higher committee by central banks in Iraq to treat the modes of trouble bank and supervising the merger processes in these banks.

The Effect of Financial Inclusion on Economic Growth and Human Development: A Case Study of the Islamic World

Mohammad A. Talalweh; Wisam A. Samarah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 185-202
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.167800

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of financial inclusion on economic growth and human development for Muslim countries.  The importance of this topic lies in shedding the light on the crucial and vital role that financial inclusion plays in the development of human capital and thus leading to economic growth.  An econometric model was developed to estimate this relationship empirically. The data was collected from the World Bank Group for 28 countries. The correlation coefficient was 0.79, indicating that there is a strong positive correlation between financial inclusion and human development. Nonetheless, the two regression models indicated that financial inclusion is one of the independent variables which affect both economic growth and human development; where a 1 percent increase in IFI will result in both a 0.83 percent increase in GDP per capita and a 0.09 percent increase in HDI.  Therefore governments should try to create an environment that promotes an improvement in the quality of financial services which in turn will contribute to sustainable economic development.

The Challenges Facing The Accounting Profession Under The Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)

Taha A. H. Ardiny

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 128, Pages 196-219
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.167375

The research highlights the challenges facing accountants and professional regulators when dealing with the impact of the virus (COVID-19) pandemic on the elements of the financial statements of economic units, and on the results of their operations and their financial position in the year ending 12/31/2019 and beyond, as well as the extent of the need to amend international financial reporting standards as a result of the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it happens every time when Global financial crisis it occurs.
The research reviewed the published data and reports on international and local professional organizations interested in accounting, such as IFRS, IOSCO, IPSASB, GAAP US, ESMA, AASB − AUASB, as well as the Iraqi Auditing Profession Council, and stating the position of these organizations on the COVID-19 pandemic.
The researcher reached a set of results, the most important of which is that there are a set of challenges that are most influencing the financial statements for the period ending on 12/31/2020, which require accountants and professional organizers with accounting treatments and special disclosures as a result of the uncertainty caused by the virus (COVID-19)  pandemic, including the book value For non-financial and intangible assets, including goodwill, as well as cash flow difficulties, credit losses, and disclosures related to the imposition of continuity and the accompanying disclosures. Despite these challenges, there is a consensus on the part of international accounting professional bodies and organizations confirming the ability of standards to address these effects and that there is no need to amend, change, delete or add to the requirements of the standards, especially International Financial Reporting Standard No. (9) “Financial Instruments. ".

Using the Islamic Financial Engineering in Design and Innovation a Government Sukuk of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) for Liquidity Management

Ahmed Mahamed Ahmed Medani

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 128, Pages 31-55
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.167368

This research reviews one of the applications of financial engineering and its use in designing and innovating a financial instrument that are compatible with the provisions of Islamic Sharia, that enables the SAMA to regulate the liquidity levels in the market as an alternative to the cconventional financial instruments (treasury bills and bonds), and completion of the tools that enable it to play his role in his relationship with Islamic banks.
This tool is represented in Islamic governmental checks that can be used as a tool in open market operations to control the inflation within the framework of an Islamic monetary policy. After completing the application aspect, the research revealed many results, and in the light of these results, the recommendations have also been put to serve the SAMA, and help it in liquidity management using the proposed types of governmental checks (sharing checks of SAMA, hiring checks of SAMA, Salam Checks of SAMA) Within the framework of the open market policy applied in the Saudi money market, and the gradual transformation of this market from a traditional market to a market that operates according to the provisions of Islamic Sharia.

The using of Financial Options to in reducing the risk: Analysis study in the Dubai Stock Exchange

Halla S. Khudier

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 127, Pages 70-102
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127144.1023

The research focused on testing the role of financial options to in reducing the risks faced by investors in the financial markets as a result of the numerous financial problems and crises that ravaged them in recent years. As one of the most important tools that investors use to reduce the risks to which they are exposed, the research has examined in its theoretical part the concept of financial options, the types of options contracts, and their elements and the motives for using financial options to cover risks and pricing strategies for financial options. The Black Shoals model was used in the practical aspect to test the hypothesis of the direct relationship between the use of financial options and risk reduction. The model has been applied in the banking sector in the Dubai Stock Exchange and for the year 2019. For a sample consisting of eleven banks, the research results indicated the power of the Black Shoals model in pricing financial options and reducing losses incurred by investors if that their expectations are not correct, and therefore the research recommends hedging shares against Changes in stock prices by purchasing financial options and using the Black and Scholes model in pricing financial options.

Impact of Intelligent Financial Qualifications on Capital Developing for Iraqi Small and Medium Enterprise

Abdulzahra S. Alrawazqee; Haider K. Kadhim; Ammar S. Alaamiree

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 127, Pages 49-69
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127116.1022

This research aims to analyze the intelligent financial qualifications which can be gain by the financial managers, with its impact to generate new investment opportunities, at Iraqi small and medium enterprises, these enterprises have more risks than other especially under Iraqi economic condition, which improve store market finally. These skills are divided into two groups scientific and occupational, the researchers use an inductive approach for literature review to financial intelligent skills. Research data has been collected by primary data method in some of the academics, enterprise managers, financial managers, accountant, and auditors, at Al-Najaf city. after the hypotheses test, the research finds there is a positive impact for financial intelligent skills and capital growth opportunities, and positive relationship between these skills and developing of the securities market, the main recommendation is to open connection channels with international stocks market to integrate local market with them, In addition to the necessity of qualifying financial decision-makers with good financial skills through periodic training courses, facilitating mergers with foreign companies, encouraging managers of small and medium enterprises to enter the stock market and facilitating the procedures required for that.

A Proposed Framework for Measuring and Disclosing the Heritage Assets

Ghada Y. Hadi; Waheed mahmood Ramo

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 126, Pages 86-110
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.165653

The  present  research aims  at clarifying  the concept of heritage assets and their relationship to society from a historical, cultural and environmental perspective and determining the part it may play for the growth and development of societies and the degree of their impact on future generations. This  explains also the differences in accounting treatments for heritage assets from other assets  according to their different nature. Moreover, it sheds light on the significance of providing a local accounting standard for heritage assets compatible with the requirements of measurement and disclosure. The preponderance  of this research  comes from the importance of heritage assets and their economic  and cultural value. It is worth mentioning that there is the need to define the most outstanding ways to preserve this cultural heritage from loss, theft and destruction, especially after the recent events in Iraq. This reflects  the importance of accounting science to contribute effectively to the preservation of heritage assets and their accurate and efficient disclosure in addition to  examining the practices which help preserve the  archaeological sites and the environment and its natural resources. The researchers reached many conclusions, the most impressive one is that accounting plays a decisive part in protecting the resources of the country. The second conclusion is measuring  the economic results that its outputs represented by  the financial statements  which are the final product of financial accounting.
It takes part in the field pf quality of financial information which  contributes to preserve  the heritage assets and  the  history and heritage of the country.
The researchers also recommended the necessity of designing an accounting manual at the Mosul Museum. This is due to the lack of an international accounting standard that specifies the nature of the treatments and accounting operations in this activity, and that any system that operates in light of these treatments that this directory contains.

Strategies to Reduce Administrative and Financial Corruption through Compliance Auditing: Case Studies

Zena A. J. Al-Layla; Waheed mahmood Ramo

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2020, Volume 39, Issue 125, Pages 132-159
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.164591

The research aims to activate strategies to decrease administrative and financial corruption through compliance audit through providing a theoretical framework on the concept of administrative and financial corruption, as well as identifying strategies available to bring down administrative and financial corruption and to activate these strategies through compliance audit. The research problem is the weakness of accounting control and auditing (administrative and financial) in Iraq in dropping administrative and financial corruption and its inability to enhance the confidence of society in the services provided by the profession of accounting and auditing in addition to the lack of activation strategies to minimize administrative and financial corruption. The research has come out a number of conclusions, the most important of which is activating the strategies to reduce administrative and financial corruption by compliance audit contributes to reducing administrative and financial corruption. It is not possible to promote and support these strategies without activating the compliance audit. The research reached a set of recommendations, including the need for a legal legislative obligation forcing economic units operating in Iraq to apply the compliance audit standard.

Analysis and Measurement the Affecting Factors in Public Expenditures in Iraq for the Period 2003-2017

Sarah A. khattab; Ahmed A. Ahmed; Mohammed F. Mohammed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2019, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 121-138
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163045

The study aims to study the developments in the government expenditure in Iraq during the period 2003-2017, through analyzing the structure of government expenditures according to the economic division, the changes that have occurred and trying to identify the causes thereof, as well as determining the interaction factors among them in determining the amount of public expenditure (The approved variable). In order to access the research methodology, statistical programs (Minitab, E-views) were used. The statistical results showed that the data are stable at the level as is the case with the growth of government spending and the rate of economic growth and population growth rate, while other variables such as inflation rate and the level of corruption and world prices of oil has become static or stable after taking the first difference. In order to reach the goal of the research, a standard model was estimated to include independent variables (oil prices, GDP growth rate, population growth rate, inflation rate, corruption). The research found a number of results, the most important of which is that the rate of economic growth has had a significant effect on the rate of growth in public spending in Iraq and is in direct relationship with him. The rate of inflation in the Iraqi economy was inversely proportional to the rate of growth in the volume of public spending, and identical to economic logic. 

Reconstruction of Infrastructure in Nineveh Governorate: An Analytical Study on Costs and Sources of Financing

Mayada S. A. Taj-Addin; Oday S. Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2019, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 103-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163044

Infrastructures are one of the components of life of any country, and the infrastructure in the province of Nineveh has been devastated by the events of 2014 and the subsequent military operations to liberate the City. This massive destruction of infrastructure requires substantial funding for reconstruction with limited government and external funding reconstruction. This will take a long time. Therefore, this funding must be increased and the search for additional sources of funding followed by identifying the sectors most affected and most important for the life of the individual in order to restore the stability to the province in all its forms.

The Capitalization and Its Relation With Stocks Prices Movement Applied in a Sample of Cooperative Firms Registered in Baghdad Stock Exchanges For The Period (1993-2001)

Sarmad K. Al-jameel; Omar K. Aziz

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 39-58
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161589

The study deals with the analysis effect between Capitalization process of the Cooperative Firms and Stock Price Movement. In the Framework of a sample of Iraqi Cooperative Firms with in the Industrial Sector that registered at Baghdad Stock Exchange (B.S.E), The study is directed towards finding solutions for many questions to the nature of Capitalization and the prices of Stock market and the influence of Capitalization on Stock Prices. Aimed in such context the study gives a background on the concept , The importance and The mapping of Capitalization among Cooperative Firms as well as identifying the movement of stock prices.

The Evaluation of Financial Statements of Sharholing and Mixed Companices by Using Financial Data in Ninavah Governorate

Hayfa S. Al-hadad; Mokabal A. Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 159-173
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161596

The evaluation of financial statements of shareholding companies are considered as among the important basics of modern management, and also of the main qualities of controlling, and verification which aimed at achieving effective efficiency. The research paper consists of studying the financial positions of certain specimen of shareholding companies, and the mixed which work in the service sector (tertiary sector) and the objective investigations for its activities, through studying the numbers, pointers, and material sides, in order to benefit from the result of evaluation, and comparsion, for decision making processes, for suitable managerial level inside, and outside the firms. The follow up of the work of firms, and investigating its behavior and evaluate the levels of its achievements and its effective efficiency are essential requirement to direct these firms in the correct framework, for the requirement of the needed details of information to those interested in the company. The Evaluation of Financial statements of sharholding and mixed companies by using Financial Data in Ninavah Governorate.

The Requirements of Costing System In Overland Transport Companies

Khalad K. Al-tami

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 139-158
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161595

The activity of overland Transport is regarded as the service work performed to the transport of people and commdities. It is one of the basic developmental setup and the infrastructure for any developing state. This activity has an obvious impact in implementing and success the national development plan. The importance of this research lies in the necessity of the application and availability of requirement of the costing systems in this vital service and it's role in packing .The management in planning and controlling of these activities in addition to the independence of this power in full and attempting at reducing it's costs. This research aims at showing the spots of the requirement of costing system in the overland transport companies in order to set a general frame for this costing system to this important service activity. In order to achieve the aim of the research the study concentrated on the following Points: 1-The costing system, the concept, importance and the nature of the overland transport. 2-The basic requirement of costing system in the overland transport activity and… 3- The secondary requirements for the costing system in the overland transport activity .

Accounting Concepts Relevant to Application in Islamic Banks Comparing With Usury Banks

Mohammed Ali AlSedya

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 77, Pages 9-26
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161615

In order to determine the accounting concepts relevant to application in Islamic banks the paper intial the Islamic banks as the concept and principles used. Then go on the goals it seek and the merits of Islamic bank comparing with usary bank. Then we go on the role of Islamic bank on the social justice. Then the paper presents the most important concepts principle, posulate which is relevant to bank activities