About Journal

The journal of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) is published by the College of Administration and Economics / University of Mosul (Iraq: Nineveh – Mosul). It is scientific, quarterly, and peer-reviewed journal. It is one of the most important research journals at the local, regional, and international level. The journal has published its volumes and papers in both English and Arabic since 1979 in Economic, Business Administration, Accounting, Financial, Management Information System, and other related knowledge fields. The continuity of publication in TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, as a scientific academic...
Read More ...

Analysis of the Relationship Between Intellectual Capital and Process Reengineering: Field Study

Majid M. Salih

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 9-34
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163038

The rapid changes in the external environment and the response and adaptation of the external environment require that contemporary organizations seeking to successfully continue the reengineering of their processes represent radical changes that will enable them to achieve continuous improvement in their performance and outputs and better than competitors. At the same time, the organization's acquisition of an intellectual capital with its essential components increases the chances of successful re-engineering through the expertise, skills, capabilities and procedures adopted by the organizations and their relations with their current or potential clients. This idea emphasizes the need to invest the intangible capabilities and capabilities of the organization to make radical changes Which gives the organization a leading role and creativity. Therefore, the current study sought to analyze the relationship between intellectual capital with its basic components and the stages of adopting re-engineering of processes, thus enhancing the quality of outputs of the Nineveh Electricity Directorate. The study concluded that the results were invested to reach a number of conclusions which have become a tool to present a number of necessary proposals for the Directorate of Nineveh Electricity and organizations in general, both production and service.

Administrative Empowerment and it is Impact on Job Satisfaction: A Pilot Study for Opinion of A Group of Employees in Girl College of Education

Eman A. A. Al-hayali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 35-52
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163039

The current research aims to identifying impact of administrative empowrement elements which includes:(strength,informationpossessand availability, exploitation and having the knowledge, and the reward), on job satisfactiondimensions (salaries, wages, promotion, work relations and working conditions). In order to achieve this, a theoretical schema was adopted, which including the research variables as well as formulating a number of main and subsections hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by set of statistical methods. The questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data and information from the individuals who are being researched.Due to limited studies that dealt with the relationship and influence among these variables in the Iraqi environment, up to the researchers survey, the research has been included these variables as attempt to study the relation and the influence between them.The research reached a number of conclusions, the most important of these indicated that there wasa significant correlation and regression between administrative empowrement and job satisfaction. anumber of recommendations have been made.

The Role of Organizational Factor in Improvement Quality of Working Life Exploratory Study for the Opinions of A Sample of Heads of Departments In A Number of the Colleges of the University of Duhok

Bafreen A. H. Permos; Shiler A. Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 53-68
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163041

This research aims to determine the effect of organizational factors on quality of work life. To achieve this goal; the university of Dohuk was selected to test research hypothesis to be the sample of this study, and in order to collect the data researchers depended on a questionnaire as a main tool through distribution (50) questionnaire on heads of department in the samples of Dohuk University colleges (41) of them were valid for analysis which was using the (SPSS) program. Accordingly, the research has come to the group of findings, from these findings; there is a significant correlation between organizational factors and quality of work life, and there is a significant effect of the organizational factors on quality of work life in the considered colleges. The research presents a set of proposals that are most important, increase interest in investing in human resources of the organization because it is considered one of the best investments, and to achieve efficiency in using this resource and other organizational resources.

The Relationship Between Oil Prices and Financial Market Prices in Some Arab Countries: An Experimental Evidences to Test The Hypothesis of an Asymmetric Relationship

Imad Al-Din A. Al-Mosbih

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 69-86
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163042

The paper aimed to test the asymmetric relationship using NARDL methodology for the relationship between oil price and stock prices in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Kuwait. Monthly data were used from 1998 to 2017. The study found that there is an insufficient evidence of a relationship between oil prices and stock prices. These markets, except the Cairo Stock Exchange, show that positive changes in the price of oil lead to positive changes in market prices and vice versa.

Reformation Marketing Culture by Adopting Community Dimensions An exploratory study of the Opinions of the employees in Asia Cell Communications Company in Nineveh Governorate

Raad A. Raouf

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 87-102
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163043

The current research aims at measuring the contribution of community marketing in the re-formulation of the marketing culture of the workers. It is the basis of the marketing activities and has to take into account the changes in the social culture which are reflected in the needs of the customer preferences that is no longer similar to what it was in the past. It is a clear challenge to contemporary organizations to find the Harmonic language between organizational culture with the culture of their employees and their customers so as to contribute to strengthening its viability and success in the field of competition. The importance of research is in reviewing the dimensions of social marketing, which is the result of rapid development in the needs and requirements of the era, as well as being the framework through which the crystallization of the marketing culture of the community. The importance of study raised the following question: - Does social marketing contribute to reshape the marketing culture of employees? In light of this, the objective of the research is to determine the dimensions of the most influential social marketing in the restructuring of the marketing culture through the analytical method of the theoretical dissertations on the research variables, as well as a field framework in Asia cell Telecommunications through a survey of the opinions of its employees established the theoretical convictions adopted by the researcher. The study produced several conclusions. In light of this, the research presented a set of proposals for the field.

Reconstruction of Infrastructure in Nineveh Governorate: An Analytical Study on Costs and Sources of Financing

Mayada S. A. Taj-Addin; Oday S. Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 103-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163044

Infrastructures are one of the components of life of any country, and the infrastructure in the province of Nineveh has been devastated by the events of 2014 and the subsequent military operations to liberate the City. This massive destruction of infrastructure requires substantial funding for reconstruction with limited government and external funding reconstruction. This will take a long time. Therefore, this funding must be increased and the search for additional sources of funding followed by identifying the sectors most affected and most important for the life of the individual in order to restore the stability to the province in all its forms.

Analysis and Measurement the Affecting Factors in Public Expenditures in Iraq for the Period 2003-2017

Sarah A. khattab; Ahmed A. Ahmed; Mohammed F. Mohammed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 121-138
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163045

The study aims to study the developments in the government expenditure in Iraq during the period 2003-2017, through analyzing the structure of government expenditures according to the economic division, the changes that have occurred and trying to identify the causes thereof, as well as determining the interaction factors among them in determining the amount of public expenditure (The approved variable). In order to access the research methodology, statistical programs (Minitab, E-views) were used. The statistical results showed that the data are stable at the level as is the case with the growth of government spending and the rate of economic growth and population growth rate, while other variables such as inflation rate and the level of corruption and world prices of oil has become static or stable after taking the first difference. In order to reach the goal of the research, a standard model was estimated to include independent variables (oil prices, GDP growth rate, population growth rate, inflation rate, corruption). The research found a number of results, the most important of which is that the rate of economic growth has had a significant effect on the rate of growth in public spending in Iraq and is in direct relationship with him. The rate of inflation in the Iraqi economy was inversely proportional to the rate of growth in the volume of public spending, and identical to economic logic. 

Export Development Policy and its Impact on Economic Growth in Malaysia Period (1990 - 2014)

Samir H. Behnam

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 139-154
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163046

Economic growth is one of the most important indicators of the well-being and prosperity of society. Foreign trade plays an active role in various fields and exports play a fundamental role as an engine of economic growth. Exports are therefore important in foreign trade because they play an important role in the competitiveness of international markets. Asian countries began implementing a new strategy after the economic crises (1997, 2001 and 2008), including Malaysia, which depends on reducing the role of the public sector in the management of development processes and introducing structural changes in accelerating economic growth and not relying on a specific type of exports modern and sophisticated. The research aims to identify the impact of export development on economic growth in Malaysia for the period 1990-2014. The hypothesis of research is that the development of exports has positive effects on economic growth in the long run based on a set of policies and mechanisms to implement them. Data from official sources and Internet sites, as well as using the theoretical and quantitative method of analysis to arrive at a set of results and proposals. 

Training Process Stages and its Contribution in the Level of Salesman Performance Analytical Study on a Sample of Sales Representatives in the Nineveh Province

Buthainah L. Ahmed; Muzahim R. Hamdoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163047

The research aims to know the stages of the training process and its impact on the performance level of salesmen for a sample of sales representatives of Nineveh province to raise their productivity and improve the means of work and methods, due to the many problems and obstacles that lead to poor performance. We dealt with the training stages of the definition, selling men, because this helps to improve the sales performance. The research community consists of the sales representatives of Nineveh Governorate and a sample of (80) individual (40) representative, (40) salesmen managers, and used a questionnaire consisting of (30) paragraphs as a research tool, which was analyzed using the program (SPSS), and the result was a problem A number of questions were discussed: Is there a relationship between the training process stages and the level of performance of sales men, and the research model was built and through which the hypotheses were formulated and that are represented in: There is a relationship of statistical significance and the moral effect between the training process stages and the performance level of salesmen. The research presented a number of suggestions, including: Spreading the culture of training through the definition of sales men in all stages, and the need to set performance standards by a specialized and professional committee, And conducting a survey. The sales are conducted from time to time and feed back to training process, what was implemented and how it was implemented. Keywords: 

Adopting the Algerian’s Tourism Quality Plan (PQTA) as a Mechanism to Develop and Promote the Algerian Tourism

Soufyane Benabdelaziz; Fatima Z Benyamina; Kheira Benyamina

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 171-188
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163048

This research aims at highlighting the reality of the Algerian tourism as well as the steps that adopted by the Algerian country in order to promote this sector, within the framework of the guideline Plan for the Development of Algerian Tourism by 2030 "SDAT". Also, we discussed a mechanism of tourism development through the adoption of a quality plan Tourism Algeria «PQTA» - « Plan Quality Tourism Algérie», which is a national dynamic that works to raise the quality levels of tourism services by engaging in this plan and obtaining the tourist quality mark. at last, a set of results were reached about the adoption of this plan by Tourist institutions such as restaurants, hotels and travel agencies …ext, and finally we proposed some recommendations for the advancement and promotion of the tourism sector.

The Relationship Between Public and Private Investment and Their Impact on Economic Growth for A Sample of Asian Countries - An Econometric Study 1980-2009

Muslim Qasim Al Ali; Marwan A. M. Thanoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 283-298
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159436

This study analyzes the relationship between public and private investment in Asian Countries. The issue of theory relationship between public and private investment has been focus of attention in the literature since the early 1980s and it is still the subject of consider able controversy. By researchers is whether public and private investment has a different impact on economic growth, and whites the linkages between them. It setup a simple theoretical model where two counter vailing forces coexist on the hand, public investment raises the productivity of private investment and leads to potential Crowding-In of private investment. On the other hand, weak institutes and restricted access financing could diminish the positive effects of public investment and Crowding-Out private investment. We Adopted the VAR model which is measure the log-term relationship and the Error Correction Model (ECM) to measure the short-term and finally the Granger Causality test to analyze the direction between them. The empirical results suggest that on average the crowing in effect dominates, and increase in domestic investment accelerate the economic growth through increase in capital accumulation.

Job Lawlessness A Pilot Study of Opinions of Sample of Employees in Al-Hamdaniya University

Haydar Khider Sulayman; Qusay Salim Jameel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 147-160
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159992

The present research aims the factors that effect on job lawlessness phenomenon at the university of Hamdaniya, it tackles some personal and employment variables like (sex, social back ground, social condition, family size and income level). The sample consists of the (100) employees, like (males and females) intentionally selected from all the colleges in the university of Hamdaniya. A case study method applied study the files of the employees (males and females) during the period between (2013 - 2017), and included self-factor, economical factor, social factor, policy factor and educational factor. The data have processed statistically using cay square and (t-test). The analysis has shown that the satisfaction differs among the factors the effect on lawlessness phenomenon. There has also been statistical differences which depend on personal variables and employment environment, like; social condition, monthly income, and size of the family. Other factors have shown no differences like: sex, and social back ground) depending on these result. The researcher proposed a number of suggestions. .

The Relationship Analysis of Quality Dimensions and Realizing Product A Pilot Study for Managers' Opinions in Youth Cloths Factory in Mosul

Majid Saleh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 234-275
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161685

Abstract

This current research aims at determining the definition of quality and dimensions; as well as realizing the product as one of the most potential requirements of ISO9001-2000. It also aims at analyzing the relationships that hold these dimensions.
Acuity of competition has however motivated several organizations to seek certain advantages in order to upraise the opportunity of success in local and international markets. As a result attention has been increased toward studying debating the equipments of customers needs and responding them in time with appropriate price and quality.
As for the great importance of ISO in many several organizations according to bulks and frameworks as well the degree of contribution to reach the quality standards, the organizations are nowadays striving to acquire the best quality standards via using ISO. This is done in order to apply the requirements of ISO, increase the quality of products and competing in the local markets.
So, the current research is however an attempt to acknowledge the relations among quality dimensions that has been used in the search and acquiring product. Hence, it can adopt the most influential relations that will lead to increase the purchasing in comparison with a similar organization then reaching the desired objectives.
.

The Extent of Corporate Governance Contributions To Benchmarking Reports In The Performance Evaluation of Production Units (Case Study) In The Northern Cement State Company

Intesar S. Aljubory; Alaa W. Thabit; Nada A. Agha

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 161-182
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159998

The most notable legacy that current century received from previous century is the interests of researchers, specialists, and entrepreneurs in the curricula and approaches of management science techniques in order to improve performance, innovation, and creativity, including the benchmarking method, so, that requires companies to work to improve their performance to face the market and the need for high degrees of efficiency and quality to reach customer satisfaction, companies also have to reconsider organizational reality as soon as possible and to achieve an acceptable level of performance to reach their overall goal of survival, growth, and maximizing the profitability and value the company's shares in the long term, so the company has to raise its level of performance compared to the competing companies to determine the gap between its performance and the performance of competing companies by identifying and developing strengths and identifying and addressing weaknesses. Also, the existence of a set of rules and behaviors governing corporate management maintain the balance between owners and management on the one hand and between performance and commitment on the other hand, and keep companies from collapsing. Corporate governance and benchmarking reports help the management to conduct what is planned and hence the importance of research in evaluating and improving performance. The problem of research was that the non- use of modern management methods, including benchmarking, transparently and within behavioral norms and standard of criteria will not lead to taking corrective action to evaluate performance. The research was based on the hypothesis that achieving the principles of corporate governance in benchmarking reports lead to continuous evaluation and improvement of the performance of Northern Cement State Company. SPSS was used to analyze the answers to the questionnaire distributed to a number of the members of Northern Cement State Company. One of the most important research recommendations is the need for the company in question to adopt benchmarking method and to be a continuous comparison of the performance of the companies and to be compared with better competitor and its reports within the rules and principles of corporate governance..

Obstacles of Gaining Sustainable Competitive Advantage A Case Study in Cement Factory in Hamam AL- Aliel AL-Jadeed, Ninavah Province

Mohammad S. A. J. AL-Fadhel; Saied A. M. AL- Neaami

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 481-499
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159442

The research identifies and diagnoses the obstacles to gain sustainable competitive advantages of internal environment and external environment in New Cement Factory of Hamam AL- Alil. It included constraints on the interior of the factory weaknesses, and external environment of the strength of the bargain of processors or the strength of the bargaining of environment and general environmental threats wane instrumental in weakening the factory ownership of sustainable competitive advantage and a cement factory was chosen to be the scope for the study. The researchers adopted a resolution tool for collecting data and information on the practical aspect of the study as well as personal interviews. In order to achieve the objectives of the study and its premise wane a default model demonstrates the availability of some impediments to gaining sustainable competitive advantages in the lab. Based on the description and diagnosis of the study variables and test its premise is reached for a set of conclusions, including the availability of a set of constraints experienced by the plant represented by the bargaining power when the processors, and the vulnerabilities of the plant as well as general environmental threats, and a relationship between vulnerabilities and threats to the environment, as well as a link between vulnerabilities and bargaining strongth when equipped. Then put a series of proposals that are consistent with the conclusions indicated..

The Relationship Between Public and Private Investment and Their Impact on Economic Growth for A Sample of Asian Countries - An Econometric Study 1980-2009

Muslim Qasim Al Ali; Marwan A. M. Thanoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 283-298
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159436

This study analyzes the relationship between public and private investment in Asian Countries. The issue of theory relationship between public and private investment has been focus of attention in the literature since the early 1980s and it is still the subject of consider able controversy. By researchers is whether public and private investment has a different impact on economic growth, and whites the linkages between them. It setup a simple theoretical model where two counter vailing forces coexist on the hand, public investment raises the productivity of private investment and leads to potential Crowding-In of private investment. On the other hand, weak institutes and restricted access financing could diminish the positive effects of public investment and Crowding-Out private investment. We Adopted the VAR model which is measure the log-term relationship and the Error Correction Model (ECM) to measure the short-term and finally the Granger Causality test to analyze the direction between them. The empirical results suggest that on average the crowing in effect dominates, and increase in domestic investment accelerate the economic growth through increase in capital accumulation.

Job Lawlessness A Pilot Study of Opinions of Sample of Employees in Al-Hamdaniya University

Haydar Khider Sulayman; Qusay Salim Jameel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 147-160
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159992

The present research aims the factors that effect on job lawlessness phenomenon at the university of Hamdaniya, it tackles some personal and employment variables like (sex, social back ground, social condition, family size and income level). The sample consists of the (100) employees, like (males and females) intentionally selected from all the colleges in the university of Hamdaniya. A case study method applied study the files of the employees (males and females) during the period between (2013 - 2017), and included self-factor, economical factor, social factor, policy factor and educational factor. The data have processed statistically using cay square and (t-test). The analysis has shown that the satisfaction differs among the factors the effect on lawlessness phenomenon. There has also been statistical differences which depend on personal variables and employment environment, like; social condition, monthly income, and size of the family. Other factors have shown no differences like: sex, and social back ground) depending on these result. The researcher proposed a number of suggestions. .

The Relationship Analysis of Quality Dimensions and Realizing Product A Pilot Study for Managers' Opinions in Youth Cloths Factory in Mosul

Majid Saleh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 29, Issue 88, Pages 234-275
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161685

Abstract

This current research aims at determining the definition of quality and dimensions; as well as realizing the product as one of the most potential requirements of ISO9001-2000. It also aims at analyzing the relationships that hold these dimensions.
Acuity of competition has however motivated several organizations to seek certain advantages in order to upraise the opportunity of success in local and international markets. As a result attention has been increased toward studying debating the equipments of customers needs and responding them in time with appropriate price and quality.
As for the great importance of ISO in many several organizations according to bulks and frameworks as well the degree of contribution to reach the quality standards, the organizations are nowadays striving to acquire the best quality standards via using ISO. This is done in order to apply the requirements of ISO, increase the quality of products and competing in the local markets.
So, the current research is however an attempt to acknowledge the relations among quality dimensions that has been used in the search and acquiring product. Hence, it can adopt the most influential relations that will lead to increase the purchasing in comparison with a similar organization then reaching the desired objectives.
.

The Extent of Corporate Governance Contributions To Benchmarking Reports In The Performance Evaluation of Production Units (Case Study) In The Northern Cement State Company

Intesar S. Aljubory; Alaa W. Thabit; Nada A. Agha

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 161-182
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159998

The most notable legacy that current century received from previous century is the interests of researchers, specialists, and entrepreneurs in the curricula and approaches of management science techniques in order to improve performance, innovation, and creativity, including the benchmarking method, so, that requires companies to work to improve their performance to face the market and the need for high degrees of efficiency and quality to reach customer satisfaction, companies also have to reconsider organizational reality as soon as possible and to achieve an acceptable level of performance to reach their overall goal of survival, growth, and maximizing the profitability and value the company's shares in the long term, so the company has to raise its level of performance compared to the competing companies to determine the gap between its performance and the performance of competing companies by identifying and developing strengths and identifying and addressing weaknesses. Also, the existence of a set of rules and behaviors governing corporate management maintain the balance between owners and management on the one hand and between performance and commitment on the other hand, and keep companies from collapsing. Corporate governance and benchmarking reports help the management to conduct what is planned and hence the importance of research in evaluating and improving performance. The problem of research was that the non- use of modern management methods, including benchmarking, transparently and within behavioral norms and standard of criteria will not lead to taking corrective action to evaluate performance. The research was based on the hypothesis that achieving the principles of corporate governance in benchmarking reports lead to continuous evaluation and improvement of the performance of Northern Cement State Company. SPSS was used to analyze the answers to the questionnaire distributed to a number of the members of Northern Cement State Company. One of the most important research recommendations is the need for the company in question to adopt benchmarking method and to be a continuous comparison of the performance of the companies and to be compared with better competitor and its reports within the rules and principles of corporate governance..

Obstacles of Gaining Sustainable Competitive Advantage A Case Study in Cement Factory in Hamam AL- Aliel AL-Jadeed, Ninavah Province

Mohammad S. A. J. AL-Fadhel; Saied A. M. AL- Neaami

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 481-499
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159442

The research identifies and diagnoses the obstacles to gain sustainable competitive advantages of internal environment and external environment in New Cement Factory of Hamam AL- Alil. It included constraints on the interior of the factory weaknesses, and external environment of the strength of the bargain of processors or the strength of the bargaining of environment and general environmental threats wane instrumental in weakening the factory ownership of sustainable competitive advantage and a cement factory was chosen to be the scope for the study. The researchers adopted a resolution tool for collecting data and information on the practical aspect of the study as well as personal interviews. In order to achieve the objectives of the study and its premise wane a default model demonstrates the availability of some impediments to gaining sustainable competitive advantages in the lab. Based on the description and diagnosis of the study variables and test its premise is reached for a set of conclusions, including the availability of a set of constraints experienced by the plant represented by the bargaining power when the processors, and the vulnerabilities of the plant as well as general environmental threats, and a relationship between vulnerabilities and threats to the environment, as well as a link between vulnerabilities and bargaining strongth when equipped. Then put a series of proposals that are consistent with the conclusions indicated..

Latest News

The new form of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN cover
In the light of the global developments for the management of international journals, the cover of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) journal have been redesigned in the light of trying to submit it by Scopus ...

Read More ...

Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.122, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.122, 2019 Please, Click here!

Read More ...

Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.121, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.121, 2019 Please, Click here!

Read More ...