About Journal

The journal of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) is published by the College of Administration and Economics / University of Mosul (Iraq: Nineveh – Mosul). It is scientific, quarterly, and peer-reviewed journal. It is one of the most important research journals at the local, regional, and international level. The journal has published its volumes and papers in both English and Arabic since 1979 in Economic, Business Administration, Accounting, Financial, Management Information System, and other related knowledge fields. The continuity of publication in TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, as a scientific academic...
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The Contribution of Sustainable Manufacturing Strategies in Enhancing Marketing Opportunities - An Exploratory Study at The General Company For Textile And Leather Industries / Baghdad

Alaa A. Al Shahwani; Raad A. Raouf

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 9-27
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127552.1031

The aim of the current study is to define the strategies of sustainable manufacturing and its impact on supporting marketing opportunities in the state Company for Leather and Textile Industries / Baghdad.
Hence, the problem of the study has identified by questions concerning the possibility of adopting the strategies of sustainable manufacturing and the impact of its to marketing opportunities as follows:
Is there a significant correlation between strategies of sustainable manufacturing and marketing opportunities in the state company for textile and leather industries?
Is there a significant influence of strategies of sustainable manufacturing in marketing opportunities in the state company for textile and leather industries?
The study concluded with a number of conclusions, most notably the existence of a strong positive correlation between the variables of the study at the macro level, which indicates the importance of the strategies of sustainable manufacturing  in marketing opportunities in the surveyed company, and Is there a significant influence of strategies of sustainable manufacturing in marketing opportunities in the company surveyed collectively , and this indicates that the strategies of sustainable manufacturing  enhance the activation of marketing opportunities in the company surveyed
the study presented a number of suggestions, the most important of which is the increasing interest by management of the company surveyed with the contents of managerial thought in the strategies of sustainable manufacturing and marketing opportunities of the  managers and enhancing its in staff to contribute to the survival of the business world and increasing the interest by management of the company in the study of the strategies of sustainable manufacturing and marketing opportunities  its in good way to implement it by conferences and training courses for managers  to improve performance in the strategies of sustainable manufacturing and marketing opportunities

Sustainable Supply chain management Actives and Their Role in Enhancing Environmental Performance\A Field study at the North Refineries Company / Al-Qayyarah Refinery in Nineveh Governorate

Mohammed M. Al-juboury; Adel Th. Al-Nima

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 28-56
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127704.1035

The current research represents an attempt to determine the relationship and impact between the activities of sustainable supply chain management and environmental performance measurement indicators approved in the current research in the General Company for North Refineries - Qayyarah Refinery in Nineveh Governorate, and through two aspects the first theoretical included a presentation of the literature on its subject, while the second is embodied in a study The current reality of the researched organization, and the research generally tries to answer the following questions :
- Does the surveyed organization's management have an idea about sustainable supply chain management, its activities and its role in enhancing environmental performance ?
- Do sustainable supply chain management activities contribute to enhancing environmental performance ?
- What is the nature and dimensions of the relationship and impact between each of the activities of sustainable supply chain management and indicators of measuring environmental performance ?
To answer these questions, a hypothetical scheme has been built that reflects the nature of the relationship and the impact between the research variables in the researched organization, and a set of main and subsidiary hypotheses that have been tested using statistical methods for the data collected in the questionnaire through the respondents were adopted, and based on the description of the research variables and their diagnosis and testing relationships with Among them, and according to the results of his plan, it was referred to a set of conclusions, after which the recommendations were presented

The harmonic relationship between brand reputation and positive word of mouth-A survey study of a sample of Carrefour customers In the city of Erbil

Hend ahmad; Raad Adnan Raouf

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 57-71
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.167795

The aim of the current research is to find the nature of the relationship between the variable of the organization’s reputation and the variable of the positive spoken word for what these two variables represent of great importance to business organizations. Ways to reach it, accordingly, the Carrefour store was chosen because of its great importance and great turnout by customers as it offers a variety of products and has a well-known brand, and by asking a group of questions that express the content of the research problem, which is the nature of the harmonic relationship between the brand's reputation and the word Positive pronouncement, as 65 questionnaires were distributed to Carrefour store customers, and through the adoption of the statistical analysis program SPSS, a set of conclusions were reached, the most important of which is that there is a consensual relationship between the brand's reputation and the positive spoken word at the macro level. A set of proposals was presented, the most important of which is the necessity of establishing a Carrefour store Using social media in a way that supports their branding, which will be reflected in the word A. Positivity is spoken due to the harmonic relationship between the two concepts.

The Relationship Reciprocal Effect between Strategic Agility and Competitive Intelligence-An Analytical Study of the opinion of Sample Managers at (Korek) Telecom Company in Iraq

Shihab M. M. Al-Taha

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 72-91
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127879.1038

The paper aims at measuring both the relationship and reciprocal effect between strategic agility along with its dimensions (agility of sensing, agility of decision-making, agility of practice), on one hand, and competitive intelligence along with its dimensions (market intelligence, competitor intelligence, technology intelligence), on the other hand. Korek mobile communications company in Iraq is used as the field of the study.  Questionnaire has been used as a tool for collecting data to achieve the aims of the paper.  There are (43) forms distributed to the managers at the company's headquarters, and all the forms retrieved have been found valid for statistical analysis. In this context, the analysis adopts a number of statistical methods (like: correlation coefficient, simple linear regression coefficient).  The study concludes that there is a correlation relationship with significant statistical significance between strategic agility and competitive intelligence, and the presence of a positive reciprocal effect with significant statistical significance between strategic agility and competitive intelligence. Finally, a set of recommendations, based on the given conclusions, has been suggested. one of these recommendation is the focus on the sustainability of strengthening the relationship between strategic agility and competitive intelligence due to the importance of such sustainability and the positive reflection on the organization's performance as well as enhancing the mutual effect between strategic agility and competitive intelligence via focusing on achieving compatibility and compatibility between the sub-dimensions of the two variables.

The role of organizational spirituality in promoting high performance -An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of teaching and administrative staff in the Commerce of College, Sulaymaniyah University

zahra asad sia bandar

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 92-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127690.1034

The research aims at studying the dimensions of organizational spirituality and its role in promoting high performance at the College of Commerce / University of Sulaymaniyah, and on the basis of the importance of the research through the importance of its variables represented by the dimensions of organizational spirituality as an approved variable, which are: (organization strategy and policies, future preparations and plans, organization culture) based on According to (Najm, 2015), and the characteristics of high performance as an interpreted variable, which are: (quality of management, openness and effective orientation, quality of the workforce, continuous improvement, long-term orientation), based on (DeWaal, etal., 2014), a questionnaire was adopted as a tool to collect Analyzing and presenting data electronically to all faculty members and staff working in the college is designed according to the (Likert) quinary, and (49) valid answers were obtained for statistical analysis and processing according to the (SPSS) program, and the hypotheses and relationships of correlation and influence between the dimensions of the two variables were tested. Perhaps the most prominent conclusions reached by the research are: There is consensus on the importance of the spiritual approach in promoting high performance, and the existence of two moral correlations and influence between the organizational spiritual dimensions and the performance High, and a set of recommendations were reached, including: Focusing on the importance of organizational spirituality in supporting and encouraging all working individuals to improve performance and upgrading it, and activating the spiritual and moral aspect, especially after the absence of financial support by administrative leaders, the need to pay attention to the various aspects and areas of university performance in order to Upgrading it to ensure the improvement of competitiveness in the educational environment.

The Moderating Role Of Environmental Turbulence In Enhancing The Relationship Between Absorptive Capacity And Strategic Innovation

Jawad Muhsin Radhi Radhi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 121-158
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127819.1037

The current research examines the moderating  role of environmental turbulence  with its dimensions (market turbulent , technological turbulent)  in enhancing the relationship between absorptive capacity  in its dimensions (knowledge acquisition, knowledge assimilation, knowledge transformation, knowledge Exploitation) and strategic innovation in its dimensions (innovation in business models, innovation in providing superior value to customers, innovation in discovering new markets). The research sample included (112) individuals from the managers at Zain Telecom in the main centers, branches and departments in Baghdad and the governance of the Middle Euphrates (Qadisiyah, Babil, Ashraf Najaf, Holy Karbala, Muthanna). The research depended on the descriptive analytical method and the questionnaire in collecting data and information, in addition to a set of statistical tools including (mean, standard deviation, simple correlation, multiple regression, structural modeling equation). The research found that there is relationship for the dimensions of absorptive capacity in strategic innovation, and that environmental turbulence (market turbulence and technological turbulence) significantly enhances  the relationship between absorptive capacity and strategic innovation.

Dimensions of customer relationship management and its role in enhancing marketing knowledge-A An exploratory study of a sample of workers in private banks in the city of Dohuk

Mohammed A. M. Alhamamy

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 159-184
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2020.127673.1032

This research aims to identify the role that the dimensions of customer relationship management play in enhancing the marketing knowledge of banks in order to achieve communication and success. Banks with their customers, thus leading them to the correctness of their approved decisions.
(The private banks in the city of Dohuk) were selected as a community for the study, and a group of workers was chosen randomly as a sample for the Study or Search.
The Study or Search approved the questionnaire form after ensuring its validity and stability as a main tool for collecting field side data. The primary data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Applications (SPSS) and the following statistical methods were used (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, weighted mean, multiple simple correlation coefficient, simple and multiple regression).
The Study or Search was enhanced by a set of hypotheses that were tested through a set of statistical analyzes that reflected the reality of those hypotheses, in the affirmative or negative, to arrive at a conclusion that supports the main hypotheses of the research.
The Study or Search reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which was that banks should reinforce the customer’s voice dimension, especially with regard to establishing secret channels in a way that enables the bank to hear the customer’s voice about the level of service it provides.
Consistent with the content of the conclusions, the researcher reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which is that banks should reinforce the customer’s voice after establishing secret channels in a way that enables the bank to hear the customer’s voice about the level of service it provides.

The Effect of Financial Inclusion on Economic Growth and Human Development: A Case Study of the Islamic World

Mohammad A. Talalweh; Wisam A. Samarah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 185-202
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.167800

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of financial inclusion on economic growth and human development for Muslim countries.  The importance of this topic lies in shedding the light on the crucial and vital role that financial inclusion plays in the development of human capital and thus leading to economic growth.  An econometric model was developed to estimate this relationship empirically. The data was collected from the World Bank Group for 28 countries. The correlation coefficient was 0.79, indicating that there is a strong positive correlation between financial inclusion and human development. Nonetheless, the two regression models indicated that financial inclusion is one of the independent variables which affect both economic growth and human development; where a 1 percent increase in IFI will result in both a 0.83 percent increase in GDP per capita and a 0.09 percent increase in HDI.  Therefore governments should try to create an environment that promotes an improvement in the quality of financial services which in turn will contribute to sustainable economic development.

The Structural Foundations for Psychological Capital and its Role in the Constructive Foundation of Intellectual Capital-Analytical research for a sample opinions of engineers in the North Oil Company - Salah Al-Din branch

Hatem A. Abdullah; Abdulftah H. Ramadan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 129, Pages 203-222
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.129396.1072

The aim of the research is to know the distinctive role of psychological capital in the formation of intellectual capital, depending on the sequence of its dimensions, beginning with human capital, passing through the structural and relational, through the dimensions of the psychological capital represented by flexibility, optimism, hope and self-efficacy, and in line with the goal, the North Oil Company - Branch was chosen Salah El-Din is a field for research, and the research community is represented by (512) of the engineers working in it as the basis of the intellectual capital and they are the ones who form the human capital in the company and therefore they are the ones who form the relational and structural capital, respectively. A sample of (77) was drawn from them to represent the research community. Correctly represented according to the treatment (Green, 1991). The researchers used the questionnaire, which is the main tool for research to collect data using the descriptive and analytical method. The research reached a main conclusion, which is that the psychological capital affects the intellectual capital depending on the dimension of flexibility, while no effect of the dimensions The other three, and accordingly the researchers recommended that the researched company should be aware of giving leeway to consider the importance of flexibility, beginning with the formation of psychological capital, and then its contribution to building intellectual capital and trying to improve Mad tea sessions or group parties to activate the dimensions of psychological capital, which contributes to providing the building blocks for intellectual capital.

The Accountancy Processing of Under Construction Projects – Excavations and Survey Expenses 1283 in Petrol Units With The Application on Northern Oil Company

Sinan Jamil

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 86, Pages 70-98
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161701

Abstract

Oil production and extraction passed in general with four major stages, they are; discovery and oil scanning, well digging and renewal, production and finally refining. The time period may for the first stage is however short or may take long time reach to ten years. Thus, the oil company during the first stage got an uncertainty factor of petrol existence relatively. In the final period there were two probabilities, they are the existence of petrol in huge quantities or inexistence (or in an uneconomic way). Therefore, the payments should be delimited in terms of income, capitalistic or successful efforts ways. This should account the oblivion for there were a probability to uncover petrol in scanning and discovering. This account can be blocked in three cases:
1. In abandoning the project in that area.
2. Shifting into other oil productive wells.
3. Selling to other companies.
In each of these above cases there are three policies might be followed by the oil companies. They are no allocation for the under construction projects – payments of discovering (1283) and allocation for each project. So, the current research sought in details of accounting according to the previous cases and the application on the Northern Oil Company.

.

Money Laundry and its Effect on the Economics of the Developing Countries

Shaher Al-Shaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161813

Abstract

Money laundry is considered to be one of the expressions which has been tackled among the international scales. The international territories have recently interested in the issues of economic crimes and social security. Money laundry is connected extremely with illegal activities. The operations of money laundry usually exceed the limits of laws validity that may have been considered as crimes in nature inside the territorial borders. Money laundry is connected with the political corruption which is naturally accompanied with availing the execution of great resources and smuggling money abroad for laundering it and coming back in a lawful way or using money as materialistic properties or houses, gold or bank notes. The processing of money laundry is done in many tactics. It ranges from simplicity into sophisticated forms according to the circumstances and business nature. Technology has a dangerous role in developing the tactics for laundering money. It leads to smuggling of money abroad and loss in production of capitalism. It prevents production of goods and services which reflexes negatively on the national income

.

Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

Evaluating of Accounting Procedures of Fixed and Storing Assets in Iraq, Study of Sample of Governmental Units in Ninavah

Ali Abd-Allah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 96, Pages 145-166
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161785

Abstract

The fixed and storing assets formed a large part of general fund that governmental units use to produce and present general services. To guarantee an accounting control on owning these assets, it is necessary to supply constituent accounting control on it. This research aimed to estimate the accounting procedures of fixed and storing assets in a sample of governmental units in Ninavah to treat the failure sides in output of Iraqi government accounting system. As well as supplying essential information to the control on owning and uses it in governmental units. The research depended on investigation list to study the depended procedures in accounting. The research concluded into a group of results, the non clear regulations of accounting procedures of assets led to abnormal applications

.

Logistics System: The Concepts and the Principles

Nafaa D. Al-Dabag

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 105-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161593

The term "Logistics" is used in the military science to describe activities related to the movement and food supply of the army when it is in the front lines of battles . Logistics is an art and science which has its own principles and concepts. It has being used since 1950s. It is not used in the Arabic literature of administration and marketing. The study of this art has appeared in many writings and studies which focused on army and its movement. It is also the art of management of battles, materials and products which starts in the organization and ends with the consumer, or it is the management of all operations that aim to facilitate the movement and arrangement of supply and demands in the process of creating time and place utilities of produced goods. It is considered an activity of storage which facilitates the flow of products from the state of being raw materials until they reach the end consumer, in addition to the flow of information to create a suitable standard of movement in the products and supply of consuming services with reasonable cost.

The Accountancy Processing of Under Construction Projects – Excavations and Survey Expenses 1283 in Petrol Units With The Application on Northern Oil Company

Sinan Jamil

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 86, Pages 70-98
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161701

Abstract

Oil production and extraction passed in general with four major stages, they are; discovery and oil scanning, well digging and renewal, production and finally refining. The time period may for the first stage is however short or may take long time reach to ten years. Thus, the oil company during the first stage got an uncertainty factor of petrol existence relatively. In the final period there were two probabilities, they are the existence of petrol in huge quantities or inexistence (or in an uneconomic way). Therefore, the payments should be delimited in terms of income, capitalistic or successful efforts ways. This should account the oblivion for there were a probability to uncover petrol in scanning and discovering. This account can be blocked in three cases:
1. In abandoning the project in that area.
2. Shifting into other oil productive wells.
3. Selling to other companies.
In each of these above cases there are three policies might be followed by the oil companies. They are no allocation for the under construction projects – payments of discovering (1283) and allocation for each project. So, the current research sought in details of accounting according to the previous cases and the application on the Northern Oil Company.

.

Money Laundry and its Effect on the Economics of the Developing Countries

Shaher Al-Shaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161813

Abstract

Money laundry is considered to be one of the expressions which has been tackled among the international scales. The international territories have recently interested in the issues of economic crimes and social security. Money laundry is connected extremely with illegal activities. The operations of money laundry usually exceed the limits of laws validity that may have been considered as crimes in nature inside the territorial borders. Money laundry is connected with the political corruption which is naturally accompanied with availing the execution of great resources and smuggling money abroad for laundering it and coming back in a lawful way or using money as materialistic properties or houses, gold or bank notes. The processing of money laundry is done in many tactics. It ranges from simplicity into sophisticated forms according to the circumstances and business nature. Technology has a dangerous role in developing the tactics for laundering money. It leads to smuggling of money abroad and loss in production of capitalism. It prevents production of goods and services which reflexes negatively on the national income

.

Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

Evaluating of Accounting Procedures of Fixed and Storing Assets in Iraq, Study of Sample of Governmental Units in Ninavah

Ali Abd-Allah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 96, Pages 145-166
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161785

Abstract

The fixed and storing assets formed a large part of general fund that governmental units use to produce and present general services. To guarantee an accounting control on owning these assets, it is necessary to supply constituent accounting control on it. This research aimed to estimate the accounting procedures of fixed and storing assets in a sample of governmental units in Ninavah to treat the failure sides in output of Iraqi government accounting system. As well as supplying essential information to the control on owning and uses it in governmental units. The research depended on investigation list to study the depended procedures in accounting. The research concluded into a group of results, the non clear regulations of accounting procedures of assets led to abnormal applications

.

Logistics System: The Concepts and the Principles

Nafaa D. Al-Dabag

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 105-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161593

The term "Logistics" is used in the military science to describe activities related to the movement and food supply of the army when it is in the front lines of battles . Logistics is an art and science which has its own principles and concepts. It has being used since 1950s. It is not used in the Arabic literature of administration and marketing. The study of this art has appeared in many writings and studies which focused on army and its movement. It is also the art of management of battles, materials and products which starts in the organization and ends with the consumer, or it is the management of all operations that aim to facilitate the movement and arrangement of supply and demands in the process of creating time and place utilities of produced goods. It is considered an activity of storage which facilitates the flow of products from the state of being raw materials until they reach the end consumer, in addition to the flow of information to create a suitable standard of movement in the products and supply of consuming services with reasonable cost.

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The new form of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN cover
In the light of the global developments for the management of international journals, the cover of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) journal have been redesigned in the light of trying to submit it by Scopus ...

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Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.122, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.122, 2019 Please, Click here!

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Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.121, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.121, 2019 Please, Click here!

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