About Journal

The journal of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) is published by the College of Administration and Economics / University of Mosul (Iraq: Nineveh – Mosul). It is scientific, quarterly, and peer-reviewed journal. It is one of the most important research journals at the local, regional, and international level. The journal has published its volumes and papers in both English and Arabic since 1979 in Economic, Business Administration, Accounting, Financial, Management Information System, and other related knowledge fields. The continuity of publication in TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, as a scientific academic...
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The role of E-government Readiness In Enhancing Institutional Performance: A Case ‎Study In The Nineveh Governorate Bureau

Abdullah Hashim Alaarajy; Thaeir A. S. Ahmed Al-Samman

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 9-36
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.129355.1070

Abstract
The current study verified the impact of E-government readiness on The ‎Institutional Performance and the extent of the relationship between these two ‎variables, and the choice of the Nineveh Governorate Bureau as a field for research, as ‎the study aims to show the role of E-government Readiness in enhancing Institutional ‎Performance, and to show the interest of the researched institution (Nineveh ‎Governorate Bureau) With these two variables, and knowing the level of employee ‎feeling in the researched institution about the extent of availability of the E-‎government Readiness dimensions, and the extent of their agreement on its role in ‎enhancing the performance of the researched institution, as the questionnaire form was ‎adopted in collecting data, as this form included paragraphs related to the study ‎variables, The study was applied on a random sample of (247) individuals represented ‎by employees in the Nineveh Governorate Bureau, and the data collected was ‎strengthened by personal interviews with some leaders and employees in the ‎researched institution who are related to the subject of the study to ensure correctness, ‎comprehensiveness and objectivity The data collected from the researched institution, ‎and the study relied on the analytical descriptive approach, and a number of statistical ‎methods were used. The most important results are: The presence of a positive impact ‎of E-government Readiness on Institutional Performance‏.‏

Strategic Leadership and Its Role in Marketing Ambidexterity Prowess-An Exploratory Study of the Opinions of Workers in the Mosul Dairy

Ahmed Maree AL_sulaeman; Mohammad M. H. AL-Mulla Hasan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 37-60
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.129904.1085

In their research, the two researchers sought to include a set of steps. The first step was to identify the concept of strategic leadership, its importance, and then its objectives, and then determine the dimensions discussed for strategic leadership, by reviewing the views of the authors and researchers regarding the details referred to above. In the second step, the two researchers presented their procedural concept of entrepreneurship Strategy as the organization's ability to create new products that are unique and distinguished from competing products. The third step was towards standing on the concept of marketing ambidexterity by reviewing several concepts for a group of writers and researchers, as well as showing the importance of marketing ambidexterity that gain importance because organizations need to adapt Especially with the dynamic increase of the environment, as well as an explanation of its characteristics and conditions, down to a review of the dimensions agreed upon by writers and researchers of marketing ambidexterity.
As for the fourth step, it was represented in finding the truth about the role that strategic leadership can play in enhancing marketing ambidexterity. For this purpose, the two researchers chose the Mosul Alban Laboratory as a community for their research, and they collected the necessary data for a sample of workers in this community represented by (45) individuals surveyed. By using a special questionnaire form prepared for this research, the fifth step was the statistical treatment of these data within the framework of a set of statistical tests that fit with the data obtained in light of the questionnaire. The necessity of conducting research again in other products or service organizations to draw the attention of departments therein to the importance of strategic leadership as one of the important variables to enhance the organizations' marketing ambidexterity.

The electronic promotional campaigns contribute to enhancing the quality of health services An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of Nineveh Health Department employees in the city of Mosul

Anwer S. Shareef; Monther K. Yaqoob

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 61-80
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170346

The present research aims to clarify the role electronic promotional campaigns play in enhancing the quality of health services by actively promoting them and achieving the desired goals. The researchers focused on the components of the electronic promotional campaign approved by the Nineveh Health Department, and the extent of its activities in enhancing the quality of the health service, through which it was identified. On the importance of the promotional methods used in the campaign, and to achieve the main research hypothesis which is that "there is a moral correlation between electronic promotional campaigns and the quality of health service." The researchers reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which were: that electronic promotional campaigns are important in identifying the services provided by health organizations, especially in light of the Corona pandemic, and the researchers also suggested several proposals, the most important of which were: An attempt to spread health culture inside and outside health organizations to familiarize the consumer with services Health organizations provided by health organizations and their various activities.

Strategic Improvisation and its Role in Managing the (COVID_19) Crisis: An Analytical Study of the Opinions of University Leaders at the University of Mosul

Marthad Emad Saeed AL-Sumaidaie; Thaeir A. S. Al-Samman

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 81-109
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130234.1096

The current research aims to determine the role played by the dimensions of strategic improvisation, represented by (strategic vigilance, strategic agility, minimal-structure, and bricolage) in (COVID_19) crises management represented by (preparing for crisis, crisis management, and crisis management evaluation).
The field research was implemented at the University of Mosul as one of the organizations affected by the (COVID_19) crisis, and the comprehensive selection method was used in determining the research sample which consisted of (196) leaders from the university leadership represented by (the university president and his assistants, deans and their assistants, and heads of departments and scientific centers) in the University.
The research adopted the descriptive and analytical approach, with the use of a questionnaire form as the main tool for collecting data. The questionnaire was designed and distributed electronically due to the conditions surrounding the (COVID_19) crisis. Data were analyzed using (SPSS V25) and (AMOS) software packages. the research reached several conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of an impact relationship on the total and partial levels of the strategic improvisation dimensions on the (COVID_19) crisis management.
The research concluded with several recommendations, the most important of which is that the investigated organization should improve the organization's ability to find practical solutions to new challenges based on current resources. The research also stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis management plan that can be adapted to most of the crises that the organization may face.

Sustainable Marketing Strategies and Their Role in Enhancing Marketing Effectiveness-An Exploratory Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Workers in the Mosul Dairy Factory

Rawnaq Yousif Mahmood Mahmood; Mohammad Mahmod Hamed Al-Mulla Hasan

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 110-134
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130204.1095

This research aims to demonstrate the contribution of sustainable marketing strategies in enhancing the marketing effectiveness in the Mosul Dairy Factory, as well as clarifying the correlation and impact relationships between the two variables. The research was conducted based on two main aspects, the first being documentary and descriptive represented by reviewing much literature to clarify the theoretical background of each of the marketing strategies. Sustainable and effective marketing is presented by writers and researchers in their scientific products. As for the second method, it is an exploratory and analytical method, through an exploratory study in the light of preparing a questionnaire form prepared for collecting data and information related to the research. The most important of which is the main question: Do sustainable marketing strategies contribute to enhancing marketing effectiveness, and to answer these questions, a hypothesis plan for the research was formulated through which the relationships and influences between the two variables of the research were formulated, which resulted in a set of main and sub-hypotheses that were tested using some statistical methods for the data collected. With the questionnaire, which was distributed to (39) individuals researched in the research organization, which was represented by the Dairy Factory laboratory, the research reached a set of conclusions, the most important The results of the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test analysis showed that sustainable marketing strategies contribute to enhancing marketing effectiveness in light of the responses of the individuals surveyed, which confirms the importance of these strategies in enhancing the marketing effectiveness of the researched organization.
And based on the conclusions reached by the research, both theoretical and field, proposals consistent with these conclusions were presented, in addition to proposals for future studies related to the two current research dimensions.

Causes of IT Project Failure: A Systematic Review

Ahmed K. Albarzanji; Ahmed Y. Alsabawy

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 135-168
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170354

The current study dealt with one of the most important problems that information technology projects suffer from, which is a failure, as failure has become a critical issue facing this type of project, especially because of the increase in failure rates and the projects exceeding the planned costs and the timetable set for their completion. Accordingly, the basic research problem has been represented by an important question: What are the main causes of the failure of IT projects according to what has been presented in the literature in the past thirty years? In this context, the main objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature in the field of failure of information technology projects, according to the scientific contexts recognized in the field of systematic review, through reviewing the literature that dealt with the subject for 30 years, which is between 1990 and 2020. The study concluded that there are eleven causes of failure: planning, organizational factors, lack of resources, lack of administrative expertise for the project, lack of organizational support, lack of accurate identification of project requirements, project complexity, poor project communication, inaccurate definition of project scope, flawed project management methodology and finally miscalculation of risk and its management. 

Diagnosing the Availability of the Dimensions of Dealing with Marketing Chaos in The General Automotive and Machinery Trade Company: A Survey Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Workers

Suhail Luqman Abbas; alaa abdusalam Alhamadani

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 169-184
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130152.1093

Organizations need to adopt effective and efficient marketing methods and strategies to achieve continuity and growth in the current business environment characterized by rapid change, rivalry, complexity, and uncertainty that urge organizations to find methods to improve their capabilities to confront these conditions, reduce their effects, and adapt to them. The research attempts to answer the following question: What are the dimensions of dealing with the marketing chaos in the General Automotive and Machinery Trade Company?
The conclusions of the study showed the availability of the dimensions of dealing with the marketing chaos in the investigated company, arranged according to its importance, as the strategic competition ranked first, while innovation and diversification came last.
Based on the conclusions, several recommendations were presented, the most important of which is to motivate employees of the investigated company to innovate by setting an intrinsic and extrinsic reward system.
 

Diagnosing the Reality of the Dimensions of Strategic Improvisation in Iraqi Universities: An Analytical Study of the Opinions of University Leaders at the University of Mosul

Marthad Emad Saeed AL-Sumaidaie; Thaeir A. S. Al-Samman

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 185-207
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130238.1097

The current research aims to determine the role played by the dimensions of strategic improvisation, represented by (strategic vigilance, strategic agility, minimal-structure, and bricolage), at the University of Mosul. The research hypotheses were formulated, the most important of which were (the dimensions of strategic improvisation are not available for university leaderships at the University of Mosul).
The field of research is represented at the University of Mosul, and the research community included all university leaders in Iraqi higher education and scientific research institutions, and the research sample, which amounted to (196) leaders from the university leadership community represented by (the university president and his assistants, deans and their assistants, heads of departments and scientific centers).
The research adopted the descriptive and analytical approach, with the use of a questionnaire form that was designed and distributed electronically. and the data was analyzed using (SPSS. V25), and the most important conclusions were that the general rate of responses of the individuals in the research sample was good and with a positive trend, which reflects the availability of these dimensions, as well as the level of understanding and interest in the organization in the field of research.
The research was concluded with a number of recommendations, the most important of which is working to increase training programs that revolve around alternatives to using available resources (material, human, and knowledge) in a way that gives the organization the field of research with sufficient flexibility and ability to adapt to the various conditions it faces.

Test Some Determinants of the Financial Performance of Iraqi Insurance Firms is An Econometrics Analytical Study

Zainab M. A. Alhialy; Nameer Alsaegh

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 208-224
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130268.1098

The research aims to shed light on the most important transformations in the insurance business and highlight the role and specialness of insurance activities in the financial system and the economy as a whole, as well as the role that may be left by some independent variables represented by financial decisions, finance, and investment decisions and the dividend and working capital in some performance indicators and trading as the return on assets, return on share and market value, based on a research problem centered on insurance activities in Iraq and the weak impact it suffers, the absence of incentives to deal, and the decline in insurance awareness levels, which was reflected in declining financial performance indicators affected by these financial decisions and their deviations through the follow-up of the time series Of the firms that practice this activity and are listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange, and the tests came on them using the weighted least squares method. The study with its three models concluded that the rate of return on assets was one of the most affected models, specifically with fixed assets, which is expressed by the tangibility of assets, the growth rate in profits, and net working capital. The research also found a set of proposals for The most important of them is the necessity of following up the short-term indicators of each of the current assets and the current liabilities due to the severity of the vulnerability during the research period, specifically with such type of financial firms.

The Impact of International Oil Prices on the Return of the Market Portfolio - A Study of the Iraq Stock Exchange for the Period 2012-2019

Ashti Abdulsattar Al-Mizori; Ahmed Jassem Alabbas

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 225-243
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130175.1094

This study dealt with the issue of the investment portfolio through a number of objectives, the most important of which is about the impact of oil price fluctuations, along with the main economic variables, on the returns of the market portfolio, by applying to all sectors listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange, based on the quarterly relative data with 32 views during the period from 2012-2019, using a number of different regression analysis models as well as programs and mathematical statistical methods. To that, the study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that there is an indirect relationship between oil price rates and economic variables with rates of returns for the market portfolio, and this relationship is based on a variable There is only one broker, which is the money supply, and it is also possible to build a number of models that explain at high rates between the changes in the rates of oil prices with the rates of returns of the Iraq Stock Exchange portfolio, and the study recommends the necessity of diversification in the investment portfolio by choosing the economic sectors that are affected by varying levels with changes Oil prices to achieve a kind of balance between the return and risk of the market portfolio.

The Impact of Fintech's on Banking Profitability Applied Study on A Sample of Arab Banks

Sura Alsultan; Maan W. Al- Maadhedee

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 244-261
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130104.1091

The research aimed to see the impact of finTech's use of financial performance in a sample of Arab banks operating in some Arab markets selected at finTech's level of use and the availability of data needed to conduct field analysis, and four Arab markets were selected: (Saudi Arabia, The Kingdom of Bahrain, Kuwait, Palestine) for the period (2005-2019).
Based on the results reached, there were many conclusions, it became clear that FinTech contributed to the increased profitability of Arab research banks, and finTech's adoption and performance in profitability was reflected through some of its tools, particularly (ATMs, and the number of points of sale) which had a moral impact, which explains the speed of the provision of banking services and the reduction of their costs, especially in finTech.
This can be explained by the fact that FinTech has an impact on improving the reputation of banks that have employed FinTech tools in the market, which may be reflected in the increased popularity of investors and customers (customers) in the banking market.

Measuring the Strategic Performance for Non-Profit Organizations According to the Balanced Scorecard Model: An Exploratory Study in Barzani Charity Foundation (BCF)

Ahmed M. AlFiky; Maan W. AlMaadhedee

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 262-286
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170363

The research aimed at the extent to which the Balanced Scorecard could be adopted and used as a model for measuring and evaluating the strategic performance of non-profit organizations, by studying the possibility of adopting and employing five main perspectives that correspond to the nature of the work of these organizations and the sector to which they belong, which are: (the beneficiary perspective, the financial stability perspective, the perspective Internal processes, learning and growth perspective, social and environmental perspective), and for the purpose of achieving this, the researchers adopted the questionnaire as a main tool for data collection, as it was distributed to a sample of workers by (100) forms within the  Barzani Charity Foundation (BCF), and the researchers relied on the descriptive approach in theoretical framing and statistical analysis For the data, and one of the most prominent findings of the research is the availability of the appropriate ground on which the researched organization can apply this model in measuring its strategic performance, as well as the discrepancy in the level of perspectives adopted for the application and use of the balanced scorecard, and the research presents a number of recommendations, the most important of which is working on Increasing awareness among the management of the organization in question about the levels of strategic performance, by activating strategic oversight mechanisms, and using modern models to evaluate performance, as well as the need to pay more attention to the segment of beneficiaries of its services, by classifying them into levels, identifying their needs, and establishing a stable and common database in order to deliver its services to the largest possible number without repeating it to the same people.

Marketing Culture and Its Role In Enhancing Competitive Advantage/ A Survey Study In Nowruz, The Internet Service Provider in Duhok

Dalal A. Khalid; Munther K. Yaqoob

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 287-303
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170364

The current research aims to identify the dimensions of marketing culture represented by (service quality, diversity, rationality, internal relations, and innovation), and its role in enhancing competitive advantage in companies in general, especially service ones, by addressing the research problem represented by the following questions: Are the dimensions of marketing culture available in the researched company? What are the relationships and the impact relationship between marketing culture and competitive advantage?, and research hypotheses were formulated, including There is a significant correlation between marketing culture and competitive advantage at the macro and micro level at the level of significance 0.05, and there is a significant effect of marketing culture on the competitive advantage at the level of morale 0.05 The descriptive-analytical method was used, as a sample of (70) employees working in the Nowruz company, which provides Internet services in Dohuk governorate, was selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data, and its paragraphs were analyzed to test the research hypotheses using the SPSS Ver. 24, and the research reached some conclusions, the most important of which were: that the marketing culture is of great importance in companies, especially service ones, being in direct contact with customers, and the research reached several recommendations, the most important of which were: the need to pay attention to marketing culture as it reflects the identity of the company and its positionamong competing companies In the market.

The Contribution of Additive Manufacturing to Enhancing the Elements of Innovative Marketing an Field Study of A Sample of Engineering Offices in some provinces of Iraq.

hassan thabit alhussainy; Raad Adnan AL-Hamdany

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 304-320
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130423.1104

The present research attempts to identify the contribution of additive manufacturing to enhance the elements of innovative marketing in engineering offices in Iraq ,The research problem has been formulated with a number of questions, most notably: "How visible is additive manufacturing among engineers and technicians in engineering offices?"
The research aim is to provide a theoretical and practical framework that works on linking the variables of the research, enables researched offices to identify their level of orientation to the application of research variables, and then to analyze field realities to arrive at the results related to the development of this orientation through a descriptive and analytical approach, Engineering offices in Iraq were selected as a research community because of the availability of a number of research variables and an intentional sample was selected as a research sample whereby the research was based on the questionnaire for obtaining information and the IBM SPSS 19 for testing hypotheses.
This research has achieved a number of conclusions ,the most prominent of which is the existence of a significant relationship between research variables, as well as the existence of a significant effect of additive manufacturing on the elements of innovative marketing.

Strategic vigilance and its role in promoting entrepreneurship of business organizations An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of faculty staff at Al-Hadbaa University College

Hasoon Haitham Hasoon AL-Sadoon; Shahab Mohamed Al-Taha

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 321-343
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.130424.1103

At the Iraqi environment level, the civil educational system aims to reach leadership by focusing on its main dimensions, namely (independence, anticipation, risk-taking, and creativity). To achieve this, it must reconsider its level of strategic vigilance in terms of providing its types (technological, marketing, competitiveness, environmental). Therefore, the main objective of the current research was to measure the actual role of strategic vigilance in promoting entrepreneurship of business organizations by determining the level of relationship and impact between them, As the Al-Hadba University College was chosen as a field for research, and by an intentional sample represented by the faculty members, which amounted to (60) people, and by adopting the questionnaire form as the primary tool in data collection, and to reach the results, a number of statistical tools were used, namely (correlation coefficient, linear regression), where Several conclusions were presented, the most important of which is the presence of a degree of actual contribution of the independent variable in the adopted variable, and this means the possibility of adopting types of strategic vigilance in enhancing the level of entrepreneurship of business organizations, and that the most significant proposals are the necessity of increasing the interest of the researched organization and its management by invoking the types of strategic vigilance in the field of work and directing it towards strengthening Entrepreneurship of business organizations, in a manner that contributes to the sustainability of their competitive advantage.

The role of fiscal stimulus packages in addressing economic conditions during the Covid-19 pandemic

Mohammed D. Mohammed

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 344-362
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131633.1144

This research aims to analyze the role of financial stimulus packages in influencing economic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic, through some financial policies taken by the research sample countries to address the economic conditions in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The research included all countries within the classifications of the International Monetary Fund into three groups classified according to their financial and economic capabilities for the year 2020. The multi-sectional regression model was used to measure the effect of the explanatory variables that represent financial stimulus packages (the volume of grants and subsidies, the volume of public spending, the volume of public debt excluding health spending, the volume of lost revenues) as percentages of GDP on the approved variables represented by the expressive poverty and unemployment rate. On the economic conditions, and through what the analysis showed from the acceptance of the research hypotheses that stipulate the significance of the relationship, whether it was negative or positive between the interpreted and approved variables, as the interpreted variables varied in their impact on the approved variables, and the main results of the research indicated that the financial stimulus packages had an impact Positive in the variables of economic conditions in light of the COVID-19 pandemic in some countries of the research sample in the opposite of other countries, depending on the financial and economic capabilities of countries.

The Role Of Relationship Marketing in Enhancing Customer Value-A Field Study in the Nakheel Master Card Company in Baghdad

Shymaa N. Hamdoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 363-378
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170202

The current research aims to demonstrate the role of relationship marketing in enhancing customer value, as the customer is today the main source in achieving profitability and expansion in markets, and that companies in general have begun to move towards customer service, and to gain his satisfaction and loyalty with the products they provide, and the research dealt with a major problem that lies in What is the knowledge of the studied Palm MasterCard company about the importance of relationship marketing? Assuming that there is a significant correlation between the dimensions of relationship marketing and the value of the customer, and a significant effect of the dimensions of relationship marketing on the value of the customer, the Master Card Palm Company was chosen, being one of the leading companies in the field of providing marketing and financial services to the beneficiary customers, as the research sample amounted to (50) male and female employees. They work in the branches of the company in question in the city of Baghdad. The descriptive and analytical approach was used for the main research variables, and the extraction of correlation and regression relationships, and a number of conclusions were reached, the most important of which were: Relationship marketing works to provide marketing and financial services to customers who benefit from the company's services in an orderly and integrated manner, which would be reflected in raising the value of the customer. Being the basic basis for the growth and expansion of the company's activities. A number of proposals were also developed, the most important of which was: Work to support the marketing activities of the relationship in all branches of companies, especially service ones.

Application of Performance Module in Health Service Quality Evaluation: Viewpoints of Beneficiary-A case Study in Al-Salaam General Hospital in Mosul

Abdul _ Aziz A. M. AlMaula; Jamal Y. AbdulRahman

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 379-402
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.170203

The issue of health service quality has become a growing global concern in an effort by medical organizations to provide the best health service that achieves maximum satisfaction for the beneficiary.
This study represents an attempt to evaluate the performance of Al-Salam Hospital in Mosul from the perspective of the beneficiary, and the subject acquires great importance derived from being one of the contemporary technologies for designing the hospital performance evaluation system, which is one of the strategic management systems.
 
Due to the limited studies that focused on the views of the beneficiary about the level of health service, the study focused on the components of the quality of the health service in order to study the evaluation of the views of the beneficiaries of the dimensions of the quality of the health service provided to them, to know which of the dimensions of health quality achieves the greatest possible satisfaction of the beneficiary for the purpose of activating it in pursuit of achieving The highest possible satisfaction and to improve the reality of the medical service in the organization.
اعتماد أنموذج الأداء الفعلی فی تقییم مستوى جودة الخدمة الصحیة من وجهة نظر المستفید – دراسة حالة فی مستشفى السلام العام فی الموصل
 

The Role of Social Technologies and the Psychological Empowerment of Knowledge Makers in Knowledge Leadership

MOHMED .Y. MOHMED AL-SABAAWI; Ali Alshaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 403-444
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.132271.1155

This study aims to identify the role of social technologies and psychological empowerment of knowledge makers in knowledge leadership. In order to achieve this goal, a model for the study was proposed based on a set of standards derived from the literature on this field. Where the measures of social technologies were (social capital, tangible ease of use, tangible benefit, harmony, social interaction), while the measures of psychological empowerment of knowledge makers were (meaning, ability, self-determination, impact), while the measures of knowledge leadership were represented by (Leadership skills, knowledge integration and creativity, cooperation and trust). The descriptive approach was adopted to conduct the research and by using the questionnaire as a tool to collect data from a sample of (413) respondents, and to analyze the data, the structured equation model was used through the (Amos) program. The research reached a set of results, the most important of which is that social technologies have an important and moral impact on knowledge leadership through the mediating role of psychological empowerment of knowledge makers.

Evaluation of Research, Journals, and Universities in Iraq and the Kurdistan Region According to the Scimago Classification of Administration and Economics Specializations: A Comparative Study with Neighboring Countries

Zeravan Abdulmuhsen Asaad; Bayar Marane

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2021, Volume 40, Issue 132, Pages 445-484
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2021.131769.1148

The aim of study is to determine the level of researchers, the quality of published research, and the quality of journals in the fields of administration and economics, using indicators from the Scimago journal and country Rank (SJR) and the Scimago Institutions Rankings (SIR), which is based on the Scopus database of the Dutch publishing house Elsevier for Iraq in comparison to neighboring countries (Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan and Syria) in terms of the number of published research, total citations, citations per publication which reflects the quality of scientific research and refereed scientific journals for three different time periods, including for a period of (24) years over the period (1996-2020) and for a period of (18) years after the year (2002) and for the year (2020) only, and the number of academic journals and universities classified for the year (2021) for Iraq using the descriptive and quantitative method of academic journals over the period (1996-2020). The study concludes that, with the exception of Syria, research output, academic journals, and universities in Iraq and the Kurdistan Region fall behind neighboring nations. Also, this study suggests that higher education and educational authorities should update regulations and directions to motivate Iraqi researchers and universities to publish according to the prominent databases such as Scopus.

Money Laundry and its Effect on the Economics of the Developing Countries

Shaher Al-Shaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161813

Abstract

Money laundry is considered to be one of the expressions which has been tackled among the international scales. The international territories have recently interested in the issues of economic crimes and social security. Money laundry is connected extremely with illegal activities. The operations of money laundry usually exceed the limits of laws validity that may have been considered as crimes in nature inside the territorial borders. Money laundry is connected with the political corruption which is naturally accompanied with availing the execution of great resources and smuggling money abroad for laundering it and coming back in a lawful way or using money as materialistic properties or houses, gold or bank notes. The processing of money laundry is done in many tactics. It ranges from simplicity into sophisticated forms according to the circumstances and business nature. Technology has a dangerous role in developing the tactics for laundering money. It leads to smuggling of money abroad and loss in production of capitalism. It prevents production of goods and services which reflexes negatively on the national income

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The Accountancy Processing of Under Construction Projects – Excavations and Survey Expenses 1283 in Petrol Units With The Application on Northern Oil Company

Sinan Jamil

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 86, Pages 70-98
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161701

Abstract

Oil production and extraction passed in general with four major stages, they are; discovery and oil scanning, well digging and renewal, production and finally refining. The time period may for the first stage is however short or may take long time reach to ten years. Thus, the oil company during the first stage got an uncertainty factor of petrol existence relatively. In the final period there were two probabilities, they are the existence of petrol in huge quantities or inexistence (or in an uneconomic way). Therefore, the payments should be delimited in terms of income, capitalistic or successful efforts ways. This should account the oblivion for there were a probability to uncover petrol in scanning and discovering. This account can be blocked in three cases:
1. In abandoning the project in that area.
2. Shifting into other oil productive wells.
3. Selling to other companies.
In each of these above cases there are three policies might be followed by the oil companies. They are no allocation for the under construction projects – payments of discovering (1283) and allocation for each project. So, the current research sought in details of accounting according to the previous cases and the application on the Northern Oil Company.

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Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

The Intellectual Capital and its Effect on the Employees’ Performance Management An Analytic Study to Sample of Scientific Departments Heads in Mosul University

Nahida Al-Hamdani; Ali Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2010, Volume 32, Issue 98, Pages 119-145
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2010.161893

The study treated the impact of intellectual capital on employees’ performance management. The study attempted to present a new theoretical framework for the most prominent literature presented by authors concerned with both of the study’s dimensions, especially when the independent dimension embodied in the intellectual capital. It is one of the important subjects that have received great attention in recent years and considered a new horizon in the world of management in general and the world of human resource management in special. The second dimension is represented by employees performance management, one the important practices of human resource management, and includes performance planning, performance appraisal and feedback, all considered new subjects that have recently gained great attention, especially after the development in human resource management, now viewed as an important strategic participant in the organization’s general strategy.

Logistics System: The Concepts and the Principles

Nafaa D. Al-Dabag

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 105-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161593

The term "Logistics" is used in the military science to describe activities related to the movement and food supply of the army when it is in the front lines of battles . Logistics is an art and science which has its own principles and concepts. It has being used since 1950s. It is not used in the Arabic literature of administration and marketing. The study of this art has appeared in many writings and studies which focused on army and its movement. It is also the art of management of battles, materials and products which starts in the organization and ends with the consumer, or it is the management of all operations that aim to facilitate the movement and arrangement of supply and demands in the process of creating time and place utilities of produced goods. It is considered an activity of storage which facilitates the flow of products from the state of being raw materials until they reach the end consumer, in addition to the flow of information to create a suitable standard of movement in the products and supply of consuming services with reasonable cost.

Money Laundry and its Effect on the Economics of the Developing Countries

Shaher Al-Shaher

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 94, Pages 91-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161813

Abstract

Money laundry is considered to be one of the expressions which has been tackled among the international scales. The international territories have recently interested in the issues of economic crimes and social security. Money laundry is connected extremely with illegal activities. The operations of money laundry usually exceed the limits of laws validity that may have been considered as crimes in nature inside the territorial borders. Money laundry is connected with the political corruption which is naturally accompanied with availing the execution of great resources and smuggling money abroad for laundering it and coming back in a lawful way or using money as materialistic properties or houses, gold or bank notes. The processing of money laundry is done in many tactics. It ranges from simplicity into sophisticated forms according to the circumstances and business nature. Technology has a dangerous role in developing the tactics for laundering money. It leads to smuggling of money abroad and loss in production of capitalism. It prevents production of goods and services which reflexes negatively on the national income

.

The Accountancy Processing of Under Construction Projects – Excavations and Survey Expenses 1283 in Petrol Units With The Application on Northern Oil Company

Sinan Jamil

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2007, Volume 29, Issue 86, Pages 70-98
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2007.161701

Abstract

Oil production and extraction passed in general with four major stages, they are; discovery and oil scanning, well digging and renewal, production and finally refining. The time period may for the first stage is however short or may take long time reach to ten years. Thus, the oil company during the first stage got an uncertainty factor of petrol existence relatively. In the final period there were two probabilities, they are the existence of petrol in huge quantities or inexistence (or in an uneconomic way). Therefore, the payments should be delimited in terms of income, capitalistic or successful efforts ways. This should account the oblivion for there were a probability to uncover petrol in scanning and discovering. This account can be blocked in three cases:
1. In abandoning the project in that area.
2. Shifting into other oil productive wells.
3. Selling to other companies.
In each of these above cases there are three policies might be followed by the oil companies. They are no allocation for the under construction projects – payments of discovering (1283) and allocation for each project. So, the current research sought in details of accounting according to the previous cases and the application on the Northern Oil Company.

.

Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2009, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

The Intellectual Capital and its Effect on the Employees’ Performance Management An Analytic Study to Sample of Scientific Departments Heads in Mosul University

Nahida Al-Hamdani; Ali Ali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2010, Volume 32, Issue 98, Pages 119-145
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2010.161893

The study treated the impact of intellectual capital on employees’ performance management. The study attempted to present a new theoretical framework for the most prominent literature presented by authors concerned with both of the study’s dimensions, especially when the independent dimension embodied in the intellectual capital. It is one of the important subjects that have received great attention in recent years and considered a new horizon in the world of management in general and the world of human resource management in special. The second dimension is represented by employees performance management, one the important practices of human resource management, and includes performance planning, performance appraisal and feedback, all considered new subjects that have recently gained great attention, especially after the development in human resource management, now viewed as an important strategic participant in the organization’s general strategy.

Logistics System: The Concepts and the Principles

Nafaa D. Al-Dabag

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, 2005, Volume 27, Issue 80, Pages 105-120
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2005.161593

The term "Logistics" is used in the military science to describe activities related to the movement and food supply of the army when it is in the front lines of battles . Logistics is an art and science which has its own principles and concepts. It has being used since 1950s. It is not used in the Arabic literature of administration and marketing. The study of this art has appeared in many writings and studies which focused on army and its movement. It is also the art of management of battles, materials and products which starts in the organization and ends with the consumer, or it is the management of all operations that aim to facilitate the movement and arrangement of supply and demands in the process of creating time and place utilities of produced goods. It is considered an activity of storage which facilitates the flow of products from the state of being raw materials until they reach the end consumer, in addition to the flow of information to create a suitable standard of movement in the products and supply of consuming services with reasonable cost.

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