About Journal

The journal of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) is published by the College of Administration and Economics / University of Mosul (Iraq: Nineveh – Mosul). It is scientific, quarterly, and peer-reviewed journal. It is one of the most important research journals at the local, regional, and international level. The journal has published its volumes and papers in both English and Arabic since 1979 in Economic, Business Administration, Accounting, Financial, Management Information System, and other related knowledge fields. The continuity of publication in TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, as a scientific academic...
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Activating the Role of Training in the Application of Electronic Management: An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of employees at the Northern Technical University

Eman N. Abdullah

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 9-28
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163910

The importance of the training and its methodology enables the organizations to develop their employees. It provides them with the ability to keep pace with development in the external environment surrounding the organization. The technology, its methodology and applications have almost become one of the most important parts in our life. Additionally, the finding of an efficient human element has become an endeavor of organizations in their work, in order to achieve superior quality in the work environment. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the training courses of the electronic management and its applications in different types of sectors, especially in educational field. In order to study these effects, the researcher proposes three technical questions to show these variables within a holistic framework and to evaluate the relationship between them. The three proposed questions are shown below:
1. Is there a clear vision to those working in educational institutions on the concept of training and its importance?
2. Is there a clear vision to those working in educational institutions on the concept of electronic management?
3. What is the nature of the role of training on the electronic management?
The Northern Technical University was chosen as a research community and a number of employees in Technical Engineering College of Mosul and Administrative Technical College were selected as a research sample. The data and the information were collected from primary and secondary sources. Assumptions were developed and information was collected through questionnaire as a main tool which is distributed to the research sample. The results showed that it is a necessary to involve the employees with different personal characteristics in training courses on a regular basis. This is in order to ensure the realization of the main goal through the application of electronic management as one of the most important adopted methods in the modern administration.

The Role of Financial Development in Stimulate Growth Rate: Iraq Economy as a Model (1990-2016)

Marwan A. Dhannoon; Aws F. Jwejatee

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 29-42
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.164118

This study sheds light on the relationship between the financial development and the economic growth in Iraq by using annual time series for the period 1990-2016. Applying the error correction model, it is important to specify the financial and monetary variables (i.e., money supply currency as a ratio of  money supply, inflation rate and dummy variable as a proxy of financial crisis with economic growth) in order to provide the essential requirements of planning and resource management in the macroeconomics. The estimated results showed that almost the variables are negatively affected by the internal Iraqi crisis, as well as international crisis 2008. This has been reflected on the economic growth. The results of causality test showed that the direction is from growth to financial development. This agrees with the Demand – leading Hypothesis.

The Effect of Human Engineering Applications on Employees Happiness through Job Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study at the College of Engineering Al-Mustansiria University

Mahmood H. Jumaah; Haydar Sh. Nouri; Hamza H. Yasseen

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 43-64
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.164120

Human engineering has many applications in the field of compatibility between workers and their material and moral working environment. These applications are reflected positively in achieving the satisfaction of employees and then their happiness. The research problem included the impact of applications of human engineering on employees’ happiness through job satisfaction. The research aims to test as an intermediate variable in the relationship and impact between applications of human engineering and the happiness of employees of the College of Engineering - research community-. This is via a questionnaire distributed to 50 individual in all branch and department officials in the College. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. By correlation coefficients and regression to verify the hypotheses, and the results agreed the research hypotheses, It has been shown that the applications of human engineering have an impact on the satisfaction of College employees on the one hand, and their desired career happiness on the other. In the light of recommendations, it is hoped that these will beneficial to the taken into consideration.

Study the Impact of Trade Openness on Poverty in Iraq in Light of Economic Instability Using the Error Correction Model (ECM)

SAMER M. Fakhr; Anmar G. Kleab

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 65-80
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.164122

The research treated the study and the analysis of the policy of trade openness and its impact on reducing the problem of poverty in Iraq. The research aims to assess the policy of trade openness and its impact on addressing the problem of poverty for the period (1997-2017) using the error correction model, in order to map the future economic policies. It is concluded that there is no vital impact of trade openness in reducing the problem of poverty in Iraq. The research suggested that a comprehensive strategy should be adopted to stimulate productive economic sectors to benefit from the advantages of trade openness and to address poverty.

Employing Knowledge Sharing in the Process of Improving Performance: A Survey of the Views of A Sample of Employees of Some Faculties of the University of Fallujah

Ahmed A. Hammadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 81-104
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.164123

 
The present research treated the issue of knowledge sharing and its ability to improve the performance of staff in the faculties of the University of Fallujah (administration and economics, law, veterinary medicine, medicine, Islamic sciences, applied sciences),The current research dealt with the subject of knowledge sharing and its ability to improve and evaluate the performance of employees at Fallujah University and its colleges. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, a number of hypotheses have been adopted that focused on the absence of relationship and influence between cognitive sharing and evaluation of performance in terms of dimensions (confidence, communication and information technology, cognitive culture and personal interactions). The research was based on analytical descriptive methodology in the presentation and discussion of the data. The analytical descriptive method combines the case description with analysis and the extraction of its results. Using a set of statistical methods, the empirical data were analyzed. This included analyzing the responses and opinions of the surveyed employees at Fallujah University, (40) employees. The analysis of statistical relations between the variables of research has been reached a set of conclusions. The most important of which is to achieve a significant impact of knowledge sharing in evaluating the performance of the staff of the University of Fallujah. This means that the use of the philosophy of knowledge sharing contribute to improve the evaluation of the performance of staff in the field.

Availability of the Requirements of the American Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) in Diyala Electric Industry

Mohamed I. M. Hussein

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 124, Pages 105-122
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.164124

Today, all business organizations are concerning with obtaining quality certificates for the good and service, not only to meet competitors and achieve customer satisfaction only, but also to help in measuring the performance of the organization and to see whether it is successful or not. The current study aims at showing the extent of the requirements ofMalcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) in Diyala Company for Electrical Industries. This company is selected as it is certified by ISO 9001 - 2008. This study adopted the theoretical side of its subject, while the practical side has designed a checklist according to (MBNQA) standards, and the data are collected through the checklist and then analyzed to determine the application gap and to prove the hypotheses of that study, as well as to enhance the results of the analysis in the Pareto and Ishikawa scheme to see the gap and its causes according to priority using Excel Program. After completing the practical side, the study has arrived at many conclusions, according which some recommendations are presented to serve the company and help obtaining an award as such or at least apply a high percentage of its marks.

The Relationship Between Public and Private Investment and Their Impact on Economic Growth for A Sample of Asian Countries - An Econometric Study 1980-2009

Muslim Qasim Al Ali; Marwan A. M. Thanoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 283-298
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159436

This study analyzes the relationship between public and private investment in Asian Countries. The issue of theory relationship between public and private investment has been focus of attention in the literature since the early 1980s and it is still the subject of consider able controversy. By researchers is whether public and private investment has a different impact on economic growth, and whites the linkages between them. It setup a simple theoretical model where two counter vailing forces coexist on the hand, public investment raises the productivity of private investment and leads to potential Crowding-In of private investment. On the other hand, weak institutes and restricted access financing could diminish the positive effects of public investment and Crowding-Out private investment. We Adopted the VAR model which is measure the log-term relationship and the Error Correction Model (ECM) to measure the short-term and finally the Granger Causality test to analyze the direction between them. The empirical results suggest that on average the crowing in effect dominates, and increase in domestic investment accelerate the economic growth through increase in capital accumulation.

Job Lawlessness A Pilot Study of Opinions of Sample of Employees in Al-Hamdaniya University

Haydar Khider Sulayman; Qusay Salim Jameel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 147-160
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159992

The present research aims the factors that effect on job lawlessness phenomenon at the university of Hamdaniya, it tackles some personal and employment variables like (sex, social back ground, social condition, family size and income level). The sample consists of the (100) employees, like (males and females) intentionally selected from all the colleges in the university of Hamdaniya. A case study method applied study the files of the employees (males and females) during the period between (2013 - 2017), and included self-factor, economical factor, social factor, policy factor and educational factor. The data have processed statistically using cay square and (t-test). The analysis has shown that the satisfaction differs among the factors the effect on lawlessness phenomenon. There has also been statistical differences which depend on personal variables and employment environment, like; social condition, monthly income, and size of the family. Other factors have shown no differences like: sex, and social back ground) depending on these result. The researcher proposed a number of suggestions. .

Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

Internal Auditing in Commercial Banks is a tool to assess Performance and technique to correct Variance

Dawood S. Sultan; Sulaiman A. Hammadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 117, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.143121

The research deals with the concept of internal auditing. and explain the role of internal auditing and its effectiveness in commercial banks. It explains too, that the success of auditing in commercial bank fulfilled through identifying the weakness, treating variances, and developing internal controlling system.
The research aims to explain internal auditing in its new tasks, as well as to its role in assessing performance, as it is the closest to the commercial bank. The research concluded of agroup conclusions, the most important of them is the comprehensiveness of the internal auditing for all sides of banking and its role in improving the banking performance.
The research recommend a set of suggestions, the most important of them is persuing the achievement of what come in internal reports to get use of modern methods, which are adopted internationally in internal auditing, and used in this research.

Administrative Empowerment and it is Impact on Job Satisfaction: A Pilot Study for Opinion of A Group of Employees in Girl College of Education

Eman A. A. Al-hayali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 35-52
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163039

The current research aims to identifying impact of administrative empowrement elements which includes:(strength,informationpossessand availability, exploitation and having the knowledge, and the reward), on job satisfactiondimensions (salaries, wages, promotion, work relations and working conditions). In order to achieve this, a theoretical schema was adopted, which including the research variables as well as formulating a number of main and subsections hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by set of statistical methods. The questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data and information from the individuals who are being researched.Due to limited studies that dealt with the relationship and influence among these variables in the Iraqi environment, up to the researchers survey, the research has been included these variables as attempt to study the relation and the influence between them.The research reached a number of conclusions, the most important of these indicated that there wasa significant correlation and regression between administrative empowrement and job satisfaction. anumber of recommendations have been made.

The Relationship Between Public and Private Investment and Their Impact on Economic Growth for A Sample of Asian Countries - An Econometric Study 1980-2009

Muslim Qasim Al Ali; Marwan A. M. Thanoon

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 119, Pages 283-298
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159436

This study analyzes the relationship between public and private investment in Asian Countries. The issue of theory relationship between public and private investment has been focus of attention in the literature since the early 1980s and it is still the subject of consider able controversy. By researchers is whether public and private investment has a different impact on economic growth, and whites the linkages between them. It setup a simple theoretical model where two counter vailing forces coexist on the hand, public investment raises the productivity of private investment and leads to potential Crowding-In of private investment. On the other hand, weak institutes and restricted access financing could diminish the positive effects of public investment and Crowding-Out private investment. We Adopted the VAR model which is measure the log-term relationship and the Error Correction Model (ECM) to measure the short-term and finally the Granger Causality test to analyze the direction between them. The empirical results suggest that on average the crowing in effect dominates, and increase in domestic investment accelerate the economic growth through increase in capital accumulation.

Job Lawlessness A Pilot Study of Opinions of Sample of Employees in Al-Hamdaniya University

Haydar Khider Sulayman; Qusay Salim Jameel

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 120, Pages 147-160
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.159992

The present research aims the factors that effect on job lawlessness phenomenon at the university of Hamdaniya, it tackles some personal and employment variables like (sex, social back ground, social condition, family size and income level). The sample consists of the (100) employees, like (males and females) intentionally selected from all the colleges in the university of Hamdaniya. A case study method applied study the files of the employees (males and females) during the period between (2013 - 2017), and included self-factor, economical factor, social factor, policy factor and educational factor. The data have processed statistically using cay square and (t-test). The analysis has shown that the satisfaction differs among the factors the effect on lawlessness phenomenon. There has also been statistical differences which depend on personal variables and employment environment, like; social condition, monthly income, and size of the family. Other factors have shown no differences like: sex, and social back ground) depending on these result. The researcher proposed a number of suggestions. .

Incentives and Their Effect on Performance (A Field Study)

dr.Anas Abbas; Slaiman Hummadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 31, Issue 93, Pages 105-123
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2009.161831

Abstract

Human resource considered as the most inconsistent variable in the production process as he has feelings and needs that he expresses in different ways, and which in turn, affect performance in organizations. Moreover, interests, commitment, and seriousness vary from one person to another and from one period to another as a result of the difference in motives and needs. Thus, incentives have a great role in motivating workers. The aim of this study is to explore the reality and utility of the incentives system in the Yemeni Corporation for Oil Drilling and Production. It also probes the impact incentives have upon performance improvement. The significance of this study springs from the impact incentives have upon the worker’s career satisfaction. The sample of the study includes 320 employees chosen randomly from among 1630 who represent the total number of employees in that corporation. The questionnaire method has been adopted. This questionnaire consists of three parts. The first relates to the personal data, the second has to do with recognizing the extent to which incentives are significant for the employees and their impact on performance improvement and which kind of the incentives is the most rewarding for the employees, while the third explores the implementation of the incentives system in that corporation. For result analysis the researchers adopted statistical analyses such as Ratio, Averages, and Normative deviation. In addition, the T-test is used to determine whether or not there are any statistically significant differences the viewpoints of the sample concerning the implementation of the incentives system. The results indicate a meager role of the employees in the process of decision making. Moreover, chiefs pay only scant attention to the employee’s suggestions, which negatively affect their drive. In addition, promotion chances are in no way related to the performance record. Further, most of the employees complain from the low level of bonuses. Finally, the study recommends activating bonuses and relating them to performance, adjusting and improving the administrative systems, adopting the promotion system, and strengthening the feeling of loyalty for the organization by getting the employees involved in the decision making process.
.

Internal Auditing in Commercial Banks is a tool to assess Performance and technique to correct Variance

Dawood S. Sultan; Sulaiman A. Hammadi

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 37, Issue 117, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2018.143121

The research deals with the concept of internal auditing. and explain the role of internal auditing and its effectiveness in commercial banks. It explains too, that the success of auditing in commercial bank fulfilled through identifying the weakness, treating variances, and developing internal controlling system.
The research aims to explain internal auditing in its new tasks, as well as to its role in assessing performance, as it is the closest to the commercial bank. The research concluded of agroup conclusions, the most important of them is the comprehensiveness of the internal auditing for all sides of banking and its role in improving the banking performance.
The research recommend a set of suggestions, the most important of them is persuing the achievement of what come in internal reports to get use of modern methods, which are adopted internationally in internal auditing, and used in this research.

Administrative Empowerment and it is Impact on Job Satisfaction: A Pilot Study for Opinion of A Group of Employees in Girl College of Education

Eman A. A. Al-hayali

TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN, Volume 38, Issue 122, Pages 35-52
DOI: 10.33899/tanra.2019.163039

The current research aims to identifying impact of administrative empowrement elements which includes:(strength,informationpossessand availability, exploitation and having the knowledge, and the reward), on job satisfactiondimensions (salaries, wages, promotion, work relations and working conditions). In order to achieve this, a theoretical schema was adopted, which including the research variables as well as formulating a number of main and subsections hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested by set of statistical methods. The questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data and information from the individuals who are being researched.Due to limited studies that dealt with the relationship and influence among these variables in the Iraqi environment, up to the researchers survey, the research has been included these variables as attempt to study the relation and the influence between them.The research reached a number of conclusions, the most important of these indicated that there wasa significant correlation and regression between administrative empowrement and job satisfaction. anumber of recommendations have been made.

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The new form of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN cover
In the light of the global developments for the management of international journals, the cover of TANMIYAT AL-RAFIDAIN (TANRA) journal have been redesigned in the light of trying to submit it by Scopus ...

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Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.122, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.122, 2019 Please, Click here!

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Tanmiyat Al-Rafidain: Vol.38, No.121, 2019
New Published Issue of TARNA: Vol.38, No.121, 2019 Please, Click here!

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